Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms that most commonly are transmitted in contaminated fresh water. Infection commonly results during bathing, washing, drinking, in the preparation of food, or the consumption of food thus infected. Various forms of waterborne diarrheal disease probably are the most prominent examples, and affect mainly children in developing countries; according to the World Health Organization, such disease account for an estimated 4.1% of the total DALY global burden of disease, and cause about 1.8 million human deaths annually. The World Health Organization estimates that 88% of that burden is attributable to unsafe water supply, sanitation and hygiene.
A chew toy is a toy designed to be chewed by animals for purposes of stimulation and relief from boredom . The act of gnawing on a chew toy is meant to be soothing and to assist small animals, like puppies, in event of easing the pain when breaking in their adult teeth as the chewing process releases feel-good chemicals from the brain. There are several different types of chew toys, including rawhide, wood, paper and mineral. Chew toys are commonly associated with puppies and dogs, though they are also used for birds, rodents, and rabbits.
Chew toys are a vital part of happy, healthy animal's life. In addition to providing hours of entertainment, they also allow the animal to work out anxiety and boredom by being occupied with chewing a toy. Chew toys also distract small animals from chewing on other "forbidden" items, and they assist in maintaining healthy teeth.
Wilderness acquired diarrhea (WAD), wilderness-acquired diarrhea, wilderness diarrhea, or backcountry diarrhea, is diarrhea that is caused by pathogens that have infected people when they were in the wilderness. It is a much-discussed hazard among backpackers, hikers, campers and other outdoor recreationalists who visit remote areas of the developed world. Risk factors include insufficient washing of hands and food utensils and drinking untreated surface water. Cases of WAD tend to be self-limited and the specific cause (microbe) is most often never known. Based on both systematic and less formal reviews of epidemiologic data and literature, some researchers who have studied the topic believe that the risks of WAD have been over-stated and are poorly understood by the public. The National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS), however, says gastrointestinal issues continue to be the leading cause of illness in wilderness settings, and a major study of Appalachian Trail hikers found that diarrhea was the most common illness limiting long-distance hikers.
Science of drugs including their origin, composition, pharmacokinetics,
pharmacodynamics, therapeutic use, and toxicology.
Pharmacology (from Greek φάρμακον, pharmakon, "poison" in classic Greek; "drug" in modern Greek; and -λογία, -logia "study of", "knowledge of") is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (within the body) molecule which exerts a biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals.
In journalism, a human interest story is a feature story that discusses a person or people in an emotional way. It presents people and their problems, concerns, or achievements in a way that brings about interest, sympathy or motivation in the reader or viewer.
Human interest stories may be "the story behind the story" about an event, organization, or otherwise faceless historical happening, such as about the life of an individual soldier during wartime, an interview with a survivor of a natural disaster, a random act of kindness or profile of someone known for a career achievement.
Hospitality is the relationship between the guest and the host, or the act or practice of being hospitable. This includes the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers.