Carbon atoms bond together in chains, rings, and mesh like networks. AnswerParty for now!
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms. Study of structure includes using spectroscopy and other physical and chemical methods to determine the chemical composition and constitution of organic compounds and materials. Study of properties includes both physical properties and chemical properties, and uses similar methods as well as methods to evaluate chemical reactivity, with the aim to understand the behavior of the organic matter in its pure form (when possible), but also in solutions, mixtures, and fabricated forms. The study of organic reactions includes both their preparation—by synthesis or by other means—as well as their subsequent reactivities, both in the laboratory and via theoretical (in silico) study.
The range of chemicals studied in organic chemistry include hydrocarbons, compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen, as well as compositions based on carbon but containing other elements. Organic chemistry overlaps with many areas including medicinal chemistry, biochemistry, organometallic chemistry, and polymer chemistry, as well as many aspects of materials science.
A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms that allows the formation of chemical substances that contain two or more atoms. The bond is caused by the electrostatic force of attraction between opposite charges, either between electrons and nuclei, or as the result of a dipole attraction. The strength of chemical bonds varies considerably; there are "strong bonds" such as covalent or ionic bonds and "weak bonds" such as dipole–dipole interactions, the London dispersion force and hydrogen bonding.
Since opposite charges attract via a simple electromagnetic force, the negatively charged electrons that are orbiting the nucleus and the positively charged protons in the nucleus attract each other. An electron positioned between two nuclei will be attracted to both of them, and the nuclei will be attracted toward electrons in this position. This attraction constitutes the chemical bond. Due to the matter wave nature of electrons and their smaller mass, they must occupy a much larger amount of volume compared with the nuclei, and this volume occupied by the electrons keeps the atomic nuclei relatively far apart, as compared with the size of the nuclei themselves. This phenomenon limits the distance between nuclei and atoms in a bond.
Quantum chemistry is a branch of chemistry whose primary focus is the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems. It involves heavy interplay of experimental and theoretical methods:
In these ways, quantum chemists investigate chemical phenomena.
Carbon rings are rings of carbon atoms. The carbon atom has the unique ability to covalently bond with not only other atoms, but with other carbon atoms. This is because carbon atoms have a tendency to share electrons with the molecules they are bonded to. Carbons can bond to form extremely complex molecules, including carbon rings. Many organic compounds that are essential to life on earth are formed by carbon rings. The structures of organic compounds commonly are represented by simplified structural formulas, which show how atoms are linked by covalent bonds by using short lines. Rings of five and six carbons are by far the most common, as they allow bond angles close to the ideal angle of 109.5°. Rings of five are called cyclopentanes. There are two types of carbon rings that contain six carbon atoms, called benzenes and cyclohexanes. Cyclohexanes consist of six carbons bonded together by single bonds, and benzenes consist of six carbons bonded together by alternating single and double bonds. When drawn out, carbon rings are usually represented as polygons in which each point represents a carbon, and the hydrogen or other molecules or atoms complete the bonding requirements of the respective carbon atoms. Rings of three and four are possible, but with bond angles of 60° and 90°, they have a larger ring strain and are unstable. The simplest carbon ring structure is actually called cyclopentane, with five carbons. Ring strain decreases with an increasing number of carbon atoms until cyclohexane, which is a six-membered ring. After cyclohexane, ring strain increases again until cyclotetradecane, with 14 carbon atoms. Ring strain starts to decrease again, but slowly; very large rings have little ring strain, as they are almost linear.
Compounds such as cycloalkenes or benzene, or the non-benzenoid aromatic tropone, have a single carbon ring; rings can also be joined, with some atoms being a part of more than one ring. Naphthalene is the simplest such multi-ringed hydrocarbon, having the structure of two fused benzene rings.