Question:

# Can a toyota supra get 1000 horsepower?

## "Supra" -Most overrated japanese import car, capable of producing more than 1000 hp on a stock block but the powerband is useless.

The Toyota UZ engine family is a 32-valve quad-camshaft V8 piston engine series used in Toyota's luxury offerings and sport utility vehicles. Three basic versions have been produced, the 1UZ-FE, 2UZ-FE, and 3UZ-FE. The UZ series was mostly replaced by the UR series but the 3UZ-FE continues to be produced for the current model Crown Majesta 4WD (Japanese market only). The 4.0 L (3,968 cc or 242.1 cu in) all-alloy 1UZ-FE debuted in 1989 in the first generation Lexus LS 400/Toyota Celsior and the engine was progressively released across a number of other models in the Toyota/Lexus range. The engine is oversquare by design, with a bore size of 87.5 mm (3.44 in) and stroke of 82.5 mm (3.25 in). It has proved to be a strong, reliable and smooth powerplant with features such as 6-bolt main bearings and belt-driven quad-camshafts. The water pump is also driven by the cam belt. The connecting rods and crankshaft are constructed of steel. The pistons are hypereutectic. Its resemblance to a race engine platform (6 bolt cross mains and over square configuration) was confirmed in 2007 by David Currier (in an interview with v-eight.com), vice president of TRD USA, stating that the 1UZ platform was based on CART/IRL engine design. It was planned to be used on GT500 vehicles, however its subsequent use in the Daytona Prototype use was not planned. In its standard, original trim with 10:1 compression, power output is 191 kW (256 hp), torque of 353 N·m (260 lb·ft). The engine was slightly revised in 1995 with lighter connecting rods and pistons and an increased compression ratio to 10.4:1 resulting in peak power of 195 kW (261 hp) and torque of 363 N·m (268 lb·ft). In 1997, Toyota's VVT-i variable valve timing technology was introduced along with a further compression ratio increase to 10.5:1, bumping power and torque to 216 kW (290 hp) and 407 N·m (300 lb·ft). In the GS400 application, output was rated at 300 hp and 310 lb·ft of torque. The 1UZ-FE was voted to the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 1998 through 2000. Applications: The 2UZ-FE was a 4.7 L (4,664 cc or 284.6 cu in) version built in Tahara, Aichi, Japan and at Toyota Motor Manufacturing Alabama. Unlike its other UZ counterparts, this version uses a cast iron block to increase durability, as it was designed for low-reving, high-torque pickup and SUV applications. Its bore is 94 mm (3.7 in) and stroke is 84 mm (3.3 in). Output varies by implementation, but one VVT-i variant produces 202 kW (271 hp) at 4800 rpm with 427 N·m (315 lbf·ft) of torque at 3400 rpm. JDM versions produce 173 kW (232 hp) at 4800 rpm and 422 N·m (311 lbf·ft) at 3600 rpm, while Australian models produce 170 kW (230 hp) at 4800 rpm and 410 N·m (300 lbf·ft) at 3600 rpm. Like the 1UZ-FE it has aluminum DOHC cylinder heads, MFI fuel injection, 4 valves per cylinder with bucket tappets, one-piece cast camshafts, and a cast aluminum intake manifold. For 2010, it was replaced by the 1UR-FE in all applications. Applications: Toyota Racing Development offered a bolt-on supercharger kit for the 2000-2003 Tundra and the 2003 GX 470. Another 2UZ-FE variation adds VVT-i and electronic throttle control. Applications: The 3UZ-FE, is a 4.3 L (4,292 cc or 261.9 cu in) version built in Japan. Bore is 91 mm (3.6 in) and stroke is 82.5 mm (3.25 in). Output is 216 to 224 kW (290 to 300 hp) at 5600 rpm with 441 N·m (325 lb·ft) of torque at 3400 rpm. It has an aluminum engine block and aluminum DOHC cylinder heads. It uses SEFI fuel injection, has 4 valves per cylinder with VVT-i. In 2003, the engine was linked to a six-speed automatic in applications with improved fuel efficiency. A 4.4L version replaced the 3S-GTE as the engine used in Toyota's 500 hp (370 kW) Super GT race cars up to 2009][ and a 5.0L version was used in the Grand American Road Racing (Grand Am) Series. Applications: In 1997, the US Federal Aviation Administration granted production certification for the FV2400-2TC, a twin-turbocharged airplane powerplant based on the UZ series Lexus engine. The 360 hp (270 kW) FV2400 was developed in partnership with Hamilton Standard, which provided the digital engine-control system. The goal was to produce a four-seat propeller aircraft. In 1998, a marine derivative of the UZ powerplant was produced for boating applications. The 4.0 L VT300i engine, producing 300 hp (220 kW) at 6000 rpm and 310 lbf·ft (420 N·m) at 4200 rpm, used the same block as the UZ engine on the Lexus SC 400, GS 400, and LS 400. The marine engine was used on the Toyota Epic waterski boat.
The Toyota Supra is a sports car/grand tourer that was produced by Toyota Motor Corporation from 1978 to 2002. The styling of the Toyota Supra was derived from the Toyota Celica, but it was both longer and wider. Starting in mid-1986, the Supra (in its third generation, Mark III) became a separate model from the Celica. In turn, Toyota also stopped using the prefix Celica and began just calling the car Supra. Owing to the similarity and past of the Celica's name, it is frequently mistaken for the Supra, and vice versa. First, second and third generation Supras were assembled at Tahara plant in Tahara, Aichi while the MKIV Supra was assembled at the Motomachi plant in Toyota City. The Supra also traces much of its roots back to the Toyota 2000GT with the main instance being its engine. The first three generations were offered with a direct descendant to the Toyota Crown's and 2000GT's M engine. All four generations of Supra produced have an inline 6-cylinder engine. Interior aspects were also similar, as was the chassis code "A". Along with this name and car Toyota also included its own logo for the Supra. It is derived from the original Celica logo, being blue instead of orange. This logo was used until January 1986, when the Mark III Supra was introduced. The new logo was similar in size, with orange writing on a red background, but without the dragon design. That logo, in turn, was on Supras until 1991 when Toyota switched to its current oval company logo. (the dragon logo was a Celica logo regardless of what color it was. It appeared on the first two generations of the Supra because they were officially Toyota Celicas. The dragon logo was used for the Celica line until it too was discontinued.) In 1998, Toyota ceased sales of the Supra in the United States and in 2002 Toyota officially stopped production of the Supra in Japan. As an iconic sports car, the Supra has appeared in numerous video games, movies, music videos and TV shows. Some of the most notable appearances include the Grand Theft Auto, Gran Turismo, Forza Motorsport, Need for Speed, and Midnight Club series of video games and The Fast and the Furious film series. 1,988 cc (1.988 L; 121.3 cu in) M-EU I6
2,563 cc (2.563 L; 156.4 cu in) 4M-E I6
5-speed W50 manual
4-speed A40D automatic
1,988 cc (1.988 L; 121.3 cu in) M-TEU I6
1,988 cc (1.988 L; 121.3 cu in) M-TE I6
1,988 cc (1.988 L; 121.3 cu in) 1G-EU I6
1,988 cc (1.988 L; 121.3 cu in) 1G-GEU I6
2,759 cc (2.759 L; 168.4 cu in) 5M-E I6
5-speed W58 and W55 manual
4-speed A43DL automatic
1,988 cc (1.988 L; 121.3 cu in) 1G-GTE I6
2,491 cc (2.491 L; 152.0 cu in) 1JZ-GTE I6
2,954 cc (2.954 L; 180.3 cu in) Toyota 7M-GE I6
5-speed W58 manual
5-speed R154 manual
5-speed W58 manual
6-speed V16x manual

1.3L 265 PS (195 kW; 261 hp) 13B-REW
The Toyota Crown is a line of premium medium to full-size luxury sedans by Toyota primarily aimed at the Japanese market and sold in other select Asian markets. Introduced in 1955, it has served as the mainstream sedan from Toyota in the Japanese market throughout its existence and holds the distinction of being the longest running passenger-car nameplate affixed to any Toyota model, along with being the first Toyota vehicle to be exported to the United States in 1958. Its traditional competitors in Japan and Asia have been the Nissan Cedric/Gloria/Fuga and the Honda Legend, along with the defunct Mazda Luce, Isuzu Bellel, and Mitsubishi Debonair. Available at Toyota Store dealers in Japan, the Crown has been popular for government usage, whether as a police car or for transporting government officials. It has also been popular with Japanese companies as company cars along with use as a taxicab. While a base Crown was available for many years aimed at the taxicab market, the increasing opulence and price of the Crown line led to the creation of the Toyota Comfort in 1995 as a more affordable alternative. In North America, the first through fourth generations were offered from 1958 through 1973. It was replaced with the Toyota Corona Mark II, which was later renamed the Toyota Cressida, after which the Cressida was replaced by the Toyota Avalon as Toyota's large sedan. The Crown has also been vicariously succeeded in export markets by its closely related sibling, the Lexus GS, which since its debut in 1991 as the Toyota Aristo, has always shared the Crown's platform and powertrain options, with later models of the GS and Crown taking on a very strong aesthetic kinship through shared design cues. The Crown's history and reputation has given it prominence in the Toyota lineup, as it is one of the few current Toyota models to carry its own unique insignia for the model line with the current Crown having a stylized crown emblem on the grille and steering wheel along with inspiring the names of its smaller progenitors. The Corona, introduced as a smaller companion to the Crown means "crown" in Latin and was initially exported as the "Tiara", while the Corolla took its name from the regal chaplet. The Camry's name is derived from the Japanese phrase kanmuri (冠, かんむり) meaning "little crown" and the Toyota Scepter took its name from the sceptre, an accessory to a crown. It was sold in the United States from 1958 to 1973. Exports to Europe began in 1964 with the first cars going to Finland. Other European countries which saw imports of the Crown included the Netherlands and Belgium. The United Kingdom was another market until the early 1980s. It was also exported to Canada for a few years—1965–68. Australia was another important export market for the Crown—to the extent that it was manufactured there from the mid-1960s until the late 1980s using many local components. Trinidad and Tobago was also another country where the Toyota market had a successful run, which saw some productions between 1960 and 1980. The current island nations of Aruba and Curaçao in the Southern Caribbean also imported the Toyota Crown starting from the 2nd generation (S40) in 1965 in Curaçao up until importation of the 10th generation (S150) was discontinued in 1998 due to the high price and low demand combined with the introduction of the Lexus GS series. The Crown were introduced in 1955 in Japan to meet the demands of public transportation. The Crown was intended for private purchase, while the Master served in a commercial form as a taxi, both with the same 1.5 L Type R engine used on their previous car, the Toyopet Super. The front doors open conventionally, and the rear doors are suicide doors, a feature also utilized on the Toyota AA, Toyota's first car. The Crown was much more popular than the Master due to the more compliant suspension of the Crown, and while the Master was intended for taxi service, the Crown was more accepted by the market over the Master, and more Crowns were sold into taxi service than the Master. The Crown was designed to replace the Super but Toyota was not sure if its independent front coil suspension and its suicide type rear doors were too radical for the taxi market to bear. So the Super was updated, renamed the Master and sold in tandem to the Crown, at Toyota Store locations. When sales of the Crown proved worthwhile, the Master was discontinued in November 1956 after being in production for only one year, and production facilities for the Master were transferred to the Crown. While the Master was discontinued the commercial vehicle based thereon, the Masterline, continued to be offered (utilities, wagons and vans) until 1959. A six-door wagon known as the Airport Limousine was shown as a concept car at the 1961 Tokyo Motor Show. It did not go into production. In December 1955 the Crown Deluxe (RSD) was introduced, a posher model equipped with a radio and heater as standard. The initial RS model received a cosmetic update in 1958 to become the RS20, now with hooded headlights and a single-piece front windshield. In October 1959 Japan's first diesel-engined passenger car, the Crown Diesel, was introduced. Its C-series engine only had 40 PS (29 kW). In October 1960 the 1.5 L R engine was complemented by the larger 1.9 L (1,896 cc) 3R engine for a model called the RS30, originally only available in the Deluxe version. The 1900 was also available with the new two-speed Toyoglide automatic transmission. In April 1961 a Crown Standard 1900 was added. Its coil and double wishbone independent front suspension was a departure from the leaf sprung live axle front suspension used on most previous models but was similar to the independent front suspension used on the 1947 Toyopet SA. The live axle rear suspension was similar to that used on most of the previous models (unlike the trailing arm rear suspension used on the SA). Taxi versions were produced and beginning in March 1959 commercial versions of the vehicle were also available, as an estate wagon and a three- or six-seater coupe utility. These took over the "Toyopet Masterline" name in the Japanese domestic market, but usually received "Crown" badges in the export. The "Crown" name was previously in use by the Imperial limousine manufactured by Chrysler in the early 1950s. Exports of the first Japanese car to the United States began in 1957 and ended in 1960. The car was generally panned by certain members of the U.S audience. As a publicity stunt to demonstrate the car's reliability, Toyota staged a campaign common to American automakers: a coast-to-coast endurance run from Los Angeles to New York. The Toyopet was barely able to limp into Las Vegas before the project had to be called off. Since the car was designed for the muddy, slow, unpaved Japanese roads, it failed the mass urban landscape of the US because of its inability to keep up with traffic on the faster interstate highways. The Crown was simply a very high quality sedan on a truck-like chassis. The overbuilt heavy body was no match for the original 1.5 litre four-cylinder. To try to remedy this, a newer, more powerful engine was expected to be the solution, but the improvements did little to help. A total of 287 Crowns were imported to the US with only five known to have survived. In 1960 the first generation Crown stopped being imported to the US market. Many unhappy dealers were left with unsold Crowns. The Tiara and Land Cruiser would be the only cars imported until the second generation Crown was available five years later. In November 2000, Toyota released the Origin, a retro version of the RS series Crown to celebrate 100 million vehicles having been built in Japan. Due to the introduction of the Corona, the dramatically restyled and enlarged Series S40 was launched in 1962, and saw the introduction of the Custom model. According to the Japanese Wikipedia article for the Crown, the styling was said to be influenced by the recently introduced Ford Falcon in 1960. The front grille approach has a similar appearance to the 1960 Imperial Crown (Chrysler), which speaks to Toyota's aspirations that the Crown be a large, comfortable sedan. The station wagon body style carried over from the previous generation Masterline, but with more attention to the luxurious approach used on the Crown. Headlights were integrated within the boundaries of the greatly enlarged grille, providing a clean, modern appearance. A 2-speed automatic transmission was introduced, called Toyoglide, with a column shift. A bigger and better car than the previous S30 series, it initially had four-cylinder R-series engines before the addition of the "M" six-cylinder engine in 1965. Deluxe and Super Deluxe models were available with added features. The sedan and wagon were known simply as the Crown while the commercial vehicles (coupe utility, double cab coupe utility (pick ups), and van) were known as the Masterline. There was also a limited run of the sedan known as the Toyota Crown S (MS41S) which featured a twin carburettor intake manifold on the 2.0L M in-line-six engine and disc brakes on the front. This Crown became the first Toyota to be exported to Europe, after the head of Denmark's Erla Auto Import A/S saw it at the Tokyo Motor Show. They brought in 190 of these subsequent to a May 1963 agreement. In the US, the MS41L sedan was available in the US for $2,305.00 PoE while the MS46LG station wagon was available for$2,525.00 PoE. Some optional features include an automatic transmission for $160 and a radio for$60. A two-door Crown Convertible was displayed at the 1963 Tokyo Motor Show, based on the Crown 1900 sedan. It was not put into production. This Crown generation was the first to be assembled in Australia, from CKD kits, by AMI in Port Melbourne, with significant local content. AMI, which assembled numerous brands including Triumph and, for a short time, Mercedes-Benz, was to become the basis of Toyota's current Australian manufacturing operation. The longer, wider and more upmarket Crown Eight (ja:トヨタ・クラウンエイト) was introduced in 1964 for the Japanese market, powered by a 2.6 L V8 engine. However, it had a different model designation, VG10. The car was first introduced at the 1963 Tokyo Motor Show and introduced for sale on April 20, 1964, nine days before Emperor Showa's birthday and the beginning of Golden Week in Japan. The Crown Eight was designed primarily to replace full-sized American automobiles that were commonly used by major corporations. The Crown Eight represents the first Japanese mass-produced vehicle with an 8-cylinder engine. The main rivals at the time were the Prince Gloria Super, Mitsubishi Debonair, and Nissan Cedric Special, all equipped with a six-cylinder engine. It was the first Crown to exceed vehicle size classification regulations in length, width and engine displacement capacity. The width at 1,845 mm (72.6 in) compares to the Century at 1,890 mm (74 in), and as such no Crown before or since, including the Crown Majesta, has matched the width dimension of the Crown Eight until the year 2008 for Crown and 2009 for Majesta. The Crown Eight was considered as a possible submission for use by the Japanese Imperial Household Agency as a car to be used by the Royal Family, but it lost out to the Nissan Prince Royal. The Crown Eight was replaced in 1967 by the first Century with the model code VG20. Approx 3,800 Crown Eights were produced. Some of the items that were exclusive to the Crown Eight were electrically powered windows, cruise control, a three-speed "Toyoglide" automatic transmission, and electromagnetic door latches, which were also installed on the Crown Eight successor, the Century. Launched in 1967, the mechanicals were much the same as the previous generation, but additional equipment was included. Higher specification models used the 2.0-liter M engine or the 2.3-liter 2M engine. A premium level Super Deluxe model was available with the 2M engine including twin carburettors, electric windows, rear seat radio controls, air conditioning and luxury fabric on the seating including the crown logo embossed into the vinyl. Lower specified models were equipped with the R-series four-cylinder engines. The previous approach of manufacturing Crown vehicles for commercial use, called the Masterline, was discontinued with this generation. The Crown range now included the 4-door station wagon, pick-up (rare), double cab pick-up (very rare) and the new two-door hardtop. In 1969 the Crown received a face lift for the headlight, grill and trim arrangement. The Crown S used the two-litre 'six', but due to sportier tuning it produced more power than the larger 2M, 125 PS (92 kW) at 5,800 rpm versus 115 PS (85 kW) at 5,200 rpm. The commercial versions were fitted with the six-cylinder "M" engine (M-C) produce 105 PS (77 kW), while the four-cylinder 5R had to make do with 93 PS (68 kW). Crown's that were equipped with the 2,253 cc 2M engine were no longer classified as compact cars under Japanese vehicle size classification regulations, even though the length and width were still in compliance. Toyota offered the larger engine so that buyers who were traditionally served by the Crown could now choose the all-new Corona Mark II in 1968. This allowed Toyota to reposition the Crown as the top level privately available luxury sedan, with much nicer interior treatments, more spacious accommodations. This was the last generation for the pick-up versions of the Crown, as load carrying was ceded to the new Toyota Hilux in February 1971. This generation was imported fully assembled into New Zealand from 1968 to 1971.][ Australian models were assembled in Australia by AMI.][ Notable features on the wagon were: Launched in Feb 1971, the 4M 2600 engine was introduced with this generation, as was the luxurious Super Saloon trim level, followed by the Super Deluxe and Deluxe. The top of the line Royal Saloon was first introduced in the face-lifted Crown from 1973. The 2.0-liter 5R inline-four engine and the 2.0-liter M six-cylinder engine were also available. As for the previous generation, the M-C engine (in Japanese specifications) has 105 PS (77 kW), while the 5R's output increased somewhat to 98 PS (72 kW). In some markets the previous 2.3 litre "2M" six remained available, in sedan or "utility wagon" forms. The Utility Wagon was a version half way between commercial and passenger car, and had chassis codes MS67V until the early 1973 facelift when it was replaced by the MS68V with the 2.6 engine. The Sedan and Wagon (Custom) are coded RS60/MS60/MS64/MS65 and MS62/MS63, while the Van was coded MS66V with the two liter "six". The Hardtop Coupe is MS70 (2.0-liter), or MS75 (2.6-liter). The Japanese market Crown Custom (Wagon) was classified as a seven-seater. This generation was the first Crown marketed as a Toyota in Japan, as previous models were marketed as Toyopets. Also, in Japan, this model was known as the "blue whale" or "kujira" Crown. While the domestic market Hardtop has rectangular halogen headlights, all export models come with twin round headlights. This model sold very badly in the US, possibly related to the futuristic styling (called "spindle-shaped" in period marketing material) with flush bumpers that was a bit ahead of its time. Only the first two years were imported to the USA. The Corona Mark II, replaced the Crown in North America. The trunk could be opened remotely by turning the ignition key to the far left, and a button on the floor caused the radio to engage the signal seeking feature. A separate signal seeking feature was installed for rear seat passengers, installed behind the front seat facing the rear seat compartment. The 60-series Crown underwent a facelift in January 1973. Australian models were assembled in Australia by AMI.][ It was available in New Zealand fully imported from 1971 to 1973, with local assembly beginning at Steels Motor Assemblies - who also built the Corona - not long before the mid-life facelift, improving availability. Steels subsequently became Toyota NZ's Christchurch CKD assembly plant.][ Launched in 1974 in Japan, export began from 1975. Offered as four-door sedan, 2-door hardtop coupe, 4-door hardtop sedan, wagon, and van. Engines are 2.0 and 2.6-liter gasoline. The 2.2-liter diesel was introduced September 1978. Trim levels are Standard, Deluxe, Super Saloon, and Royal Saloon. Minor change was given in 1978. This version of the Crown saw the introduction of disc brakes at both the front and rear axles with anti-lock brakes, speed sensitive power steering, and a 4-speed automatic transmission with overdrive. Initially available with the "old style" 4M engine with rounded valve cover, later models switched to the new 4M engine with rectangular valve cover. This generation also saw the introduction of fuel injection on both the 2.6-liter 4M and the 2.0-liter M engines, coupled with Toyota's TTC-C technology, adding a catalytic converter to the exhaust system. Select models also were available with 4-wheel disc brakes and twin piston calipers on the front brakes. The models installed with the diesel engine was exclusive to Toyota Diesel Store locations. The Hardtop Sedan model has a front chrome grill and square headlights, but was no longer considered a true hardtop, due to the inclusion of a "B" pillar. The styling differences between the hardtop and sedan four-door models was that the side windows on the hardtop were frameless, and the rear window was sloped more than the formal appearing sedan. This series Crown exceeded length regulations of 4.7 m by 65 mm set forth by Japanese regulations, but Toyota continued to offer a 2.0 L engine for buyers who were looking for better fuel economy over the larger six-cylinder engines. New Zealand models were assembled in New Zealand but on an SKD basis - which meant it had more Japanese content (such as glass) than earlier CKD versions. It was the last Crown built in New Zealand and was replaced in 1979 by the Cressida (MK II), which was available with a four-cylinder engine. The oil crises of 1973/4 and 1979/80 had led the government to impose a 60% sales tax on larger engines, and the Crown could no longer be priced to suit its market.][ Launched in 1979, this model had the engine upgraded from the 2.6 L to 2.8 L 5M-EU model. The 2-liter M was still on offer along with a turbocharged version—the M-TEU. The carburated 5M engine was also available in certain markets. In this series the model designation referred to the engine size—MS110 (2-liter), MS111 (2.6-liter), MS112 (2.8-liter). This was the last generation to install a four cylinder, gasoline powered engine. This model was exported to the U.S. and approximately 28,000 were sold. Early models have twin rectangular headlights, facelift models come with bigger monoblock headlights. Domestic market Royal Saloons use the large rectangular headlights. Lower grades Van and Taxi adopt round headlights. Royal Saloon features longer bumpers. The first Crown Turbo was launched in October 1980 for Japanese market only. Offering the 2.0 L engines was for buyers who were comfortable with paying the large car tax, while offering better fuel economy than the larger engines. This generation is the last for 2-door Hardtop Coupe, which was replaced by the Soarer. Some of the options that became available were a glass moon roof, power drivers seat, cruise control, electronic stereo tuner, and two-tone paint. Automatic climate control also appeared on this vehicle with separate controls installed for rear seat passengers as well as a rear-mounted mini fridge cooled by the separate rear seat air conditioning unit . The 2.4 L turbo diesel appeared August 1982. Launched in 1983, this model used all three versions of the 5M 2.8-liter engine, the 5M carburetted version, 5M-E single overhead cam (SOHC) fuel-injected version, 5M-GE double overhead cam (DOHC), 1G-GE 2000 cc DOHC, M-TE 2000 cc single overhead cam (SOHC) Turbo, M-E 2000 cc SOHC, 2L-TE 2400 cc SOHC Turbo Diesel or 2L 2400 cc SOHC Diesel engines. Base versions use the new 2-liter 1G-E engine which replaced the old 2-liter version of the M series. The "van" version of the station wagon (the GS126V as well as the GS136V in the following series) used its own unique variant of this motor (the 1G-EJ). The lower grade models were available with Toyota's F292 live axle rear suspension while the rest introduced 4-wheel independent suspension on the Crown for the first time. The S120 was available in Hardtop sedan (frameless door glass), sedan and wagon versions. The Super Saloon and Royal Saloon versions were packed with features such as dual zone climate control, front and rear stereo and A/C control buttons, parcel shelf mounted refrigerator, automatic headlights, reading lamps for all outboard seating positions, tilt & telescoping steering column, glovebox mounted courtesy mirror among many things. One distinctive styling feature of this generation was the use of a clear panel with patterned backing for the C-pillar trim on the sedans. This is also the last model to be assembled in Port Melbourne, Australia from Australian Motor Industries. For the Japanese market only, Toyota made the 190 hp (142 kW)][ Twincam 12-valve 3.0-liter 6M-GE available on the Royal Saloon for the mid cycle update. This engine is a popular swap for 5M-GE powered Supras and Cressidas of the same period. Launched in 1987. Body style: Sedan, Hardtop, and Wagon, included the commercial Van. This model used 7M-GE 3000 cc DOHC, 1G-GZE 2000 cc DOHC Super Charger, 1G-E 2000 cc DOHC, 2L-THE 2400 cc SOHC Turbo Diesel Hi Power (AT Use), 2L-TE 2400 cc SOHC Turbo Diesel (MT Use) or 2L 2400 cc SOHC Diesel engines. The 4.0-liter 1UZ-FE, the same engine as in Lexus LS400, was only for Royal Saloon G, which became the Toyota Crown Majesta in the next model revision in 1992. Although a totally different chassis and body, the S130 shares styling cues with the MX83 Cressida. In 1991, when the Crown Hardtop was redesigned and became the S140 series, the Crown Sedan and Wagon were also restyled but retained S130 platform. At this point the 1JZ-GE and 2JZ-GE engines replaced the M-series in-line-six engines for the Crown lineup. In Hong Kong and Singapore, the Crown Sedan with the diesel engine was the most common vehicle used as taxis. The Crown Royal Saloon was an exclusive car. Unique for a large sedan was Crown 3.0 Super Saloon with 5-speed manual transmission sold in Indonesia. The Crown Hardtop and all-new Crown Majesta models were built on the 140-series platform. The rebodied Crown Sedan and Wagon still carried S130 model codes, although the exterior is rounder, and the nose is similar to S140 Hardtop. Styling was largely influenced by the newly created Lexus LS, which was later sold in Japan as the Toyota Celsior at Toyopet Store locations, while the Crown and Crown Majesta remained exclusive to Toyota Store locations. This generation Crown platform was also shared with the Toyota Aristo, which was exclusive to Toyota Vista Store locations. Trim levels for Sedan are Standard, Deluxe, Super Deluxe, Super Saloon, Royal Saloon, and Royal Saloon G. Engine choices were 2.0, 2.5, 3.0-liter gasoline, and 2.4-liter diesel. The 4.0-liter was offered for Royal Saloon G and Majesta. Although the Crown Majesta was related to the Crown and shared the same S140-series chassis designation, it was bigger, more luxurious and had a V8 engine shared with the Lexus LS and had many expensive electronic options. The Crown Majesta has been produced as a separate model with distinct styling since 1991. The Standard Sedan for Taxi and base model Wagon feature round headlights and chrome bumpers. The taxi is powered by 2.4-liter diesel engine matched to 4-speed column-mounted manual transmission. The 150-series Crown were built as Sedan and Hardtop (frameless door window) only. This was the first Crown to not use separate chassis construction. The Wagon retained the old and uninspired 130 series model until 1999. Trim levels for Hardtop are Royal Extra, Royal Saloon, Royal Saloon G, and the sporty Royal Touring. 4WD is offered for Royal Extra and Royal Saloon. Engine is either 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0-liter 6-cylinder. This generation Crown was not exported in great numbers. It was mainly sent to Southeast Asian markets such as Singapore and Hong Kong. These Crowns, with sedan rather than hardtop bodywork, were fitted either with the 2.0-litre 1G-FE or the 3-litre 2JZ-GE unit depending on market conditions. In an effort to return to the original purpose of the Crown, which was to serve as a taxi, the Crown Comfort had smaller exterior dimensions but a roomier and taller interior than the Crown Royal series. To reduce unnecessary cost and weight and increase interior space, the more luxurious dashboard and fitments (including leather seats) of the Crown Royal were replaced with less bulky all-plastic versions. The Comfort is also used as an instructional vehicle for people learning how to drive. The Comfort is powered by either the 3C diesel engine (5L for the Singapore market, LXS10) or the 2-litre 3Y-PE LPG engine (YXS10). The Japanese model has fender mirrors and an automatic (driver-activated) rear door. The Crown Comfort is popular among taxicab in Japan, and Hong Kong, but is gradually falling out of favour as better-appointed vehicles become available at competitive cost. The new Crown Sedan for the Japanese market only is based on the Comfort, but has wider tail lights and longer bumpers. The 170-series features shorter front overhang therefore maximizes interior and trunk space. There are two different 170-series 4-door Saloon; the Royal, and Athlete. The Majesta is a separate vehicle which is larger and longer than the Crown. The 4-door Hardtop was discontinued. The 170-series Estate was the first new Crown Wagon after the 130-series. Engine is either 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0. The Athlete V has 2.5-liter 1JZ-GTE turbo. The Royal was also offered with a 3.0-liter 2JZ-FSE mild hybrid. The S180 model of the Crown was based on the Zero Crown concept car. The engine was changed to a V6 for the new Royal and Athlete models, while the Crown Majesta used the V8 only, now in 4.3-liter form with 4WD optional. The new engines gave more performance while also giving better fuel economy. G-BOOK is introduced in May 2006. Compared with the previous model, this model was increased by 70 mm (2.8 in) in the wheelbase and 15 mm (0.6 in) in body width. These changes gave it the largest interior size among its contemporaries, more than the Mercedes-Benz E-Class or BMW 5-series. The S170 series Crown Estate was continued alongside the S180 sedans. It continued using the older inline 6-cylinder engines. This generation of the Crown is available in 4 different trim levels: the Crown Royal series which is a more comfortable and luxurious car; the Crown Athlete series which takes the luxurious aspect of the Royal series but has more aggressive styling and sporty features; the Crown Majesta series with different styling and more luxurious features than the Royal series; and the Crown Hybrid series which is a trim level designated for the hybrid V6 drivetrain. The Crown is one of the first vehicles to have a 3 Dimensional Satellite Navigation System coupled with G-BOOK and boasts many features that have not been developed by other luxury car makers. This system can adjust the damper firmness for corners based on map data and change transmission gear shift timings and engine braking for merging on and off highways and approaching tollbooths. The Crown Hybrid also features Night View with a pedestrian detection system. The Crown is set to rival the European BMW 5 series, Mercedes E-class, Audi A6 and the Japanese Honda Legend & Nissan Fuga. This is the longest and widest Crown to be built until the arrival of the fourteenth generation (S210 model). The Crown Athlete has been tested to do 0–100 km/h in under 6 seconds, while the Crown Hybrid has been estimated to take 5.4 seconds due to the additional power of the hybrid motor. The mechanically similar Lexus GS 450H Hybrid (GWS191) outputs 253 kW (339 bhp).][ The Crown hybrid concept was exhibited at 2007 Tokyo Motor Show. In television commercials in Japan a song was written by composer John Harle titled "How should I my true love know?" 2.5 L 4GR-FSE V6 205HP
2.5 L 2AR-FSE L4 (Hybrid) 217HP
2.5L 1,725 kg (3,803.0 lb)
3.0L 1,798 kg (3,963.9 lb)
3.5L 1,825 kg (4,023.4 lb)
3.5L Supercharged1,845 kg (4,067.5 lb)
The fourteenth generation Crown was launched in December 2012 with new styling, with the Royal series front styling theme paying homage to the 5th generation MS105 series. Most aspects of the car can be controlled by Toyota Multi-Operation Touch panel. The Crown Royal is available with the 2.5 L 4GR-FSE V6 engine with a 6-speed automatic (RWD or 4WD) or the 2.5 2AR-FSE inline-4 with THS II (RWD only). The Crown Athlete shares the same engines but also has an optional 3.5 L 2GR-FSE V6 engine with an 8-speed automatic (RWD only).
Horsepower (hp) is the name of several units of measurement of power, the rate at which work is done. The most common conversion factor, especially for electrical power, is 1 hp = 746 watts. The term was adopted in the late 18th century by Scottish engineer James Watt to compare the output of steam engines with the power of draft horses. It was later expanded to include the output power of other types of piston engines, as well as turbines, electric motors and other machinery. The definition of the unit varied between geographical regions. Most countries now use the SI unit watt for measurement of power. With the implementation of the EU Directive 80/181/EEC on January 1, 2010, the use of horsepower in the EU is only permitted as supplementary unit.][ Units called "horsepower" have differing definitions: The development of the steam engine provided a reason to compare the output of horses with that of the engines that could replace them. In 1702, Thomas Savery wrote in The Miner's Friend: "So that an engine which will raise as much water as two horses, working together at one time in such a work, can do, and for which there must be constantly kept ten or twelve horses for doing the same. Then I say, such an engine may be made large enough to do the work required in employing eight, ten, fifteen, or twenty horses to be constantly maintained and kept for doing such a work…" The idea was later used by James Watt to help market his improved steam engine. He had previously agreed to take royalties of one third of the savings in coal from the older Newcomen steam engines. This royalty scheme did not work with customers who did not have existing steam engines but used horses instead. Watt determined that a horse could turn a mill wheel 144 times in an hour (or 2.4 times a minute). The wheel was 12 feet in radius; therefore, the horse travelled 2.4 × 2π × 12 feet in one minute. Watt judged that the horse could pull with a force of 180 pounds. So: This was rounded to an even 33,000 ft·lbf/min. Others][ recount that Watt determined that a pony could lift an average 220 lbf (0.98 kN) 100 ft (30 m) per minute over a four-hour working shift. Watt then judged a horse was 50% more powerful than a pony and thus arrived at the 33,000 ft·lbf/min figure. Engineering in History recounts that John Smeaton initially estimated that a horse could produce 22,916 foot-pounds per minute. John Desaguliers had previously suggested 44,000 foot-pounds per minute and Tredgold 27,500 foot-pounds per minute. "Watt found by experiment in 1782 that a 'brewery horse' could produce 32,400 foot-pounds per minute." James Watt and Matthew Boulton standardized that figure at 33,000 the next year. Most observers familiar with horses and their capabilities estimate that Watt was either a bit optimistic or intended to underpromise and overdeliver; few horses can maintain that effort for long. Regardless, comparison with a horse proved to be an enduring marketing tool. In 1993, R. D. Stevenson and R. J. Wassersug published an article calculating the upper limit to an animal's power output. The peak power over a few seconds has been measured to be as high as 14.9 hp. However, Stevenson and Wassersug observe that for sustained activity, a work rate of about 1 hp per horse is consistent with agricultural advice from both 19th and 20th century sources. When considering human-powered equipment, a healthy human can produce about 1.2 hp briefly (see orders of magnitude) and sustain about 0.1 hp indefinitely; trained athletes can manage up to about 2.5 hp briefly and 0.3 hp for a period of several hours. For a given torque and angular speed, the power may be calculated: the relationship when using a coherent system of units (such as SI) is simply $P = \tau \omega$, where $P$ is power, $\tau$ is torque, and $\omega$ is angular speed. But when using other units or when reckoning the speed in full rotations rather than radians, a constant has to be added to the equation. When torque is in foot-pounds, rotational speed $(f)$ is in rpm and power is in horsepower: The constant 5252 is the rounded value of (33,000 ft·lbf/min)/(2π rad/rev). When torque is in inch pounds: The constant 63,025 is the rounded value of (33,000 ft·lbf/min) × (12 in/ft)/(2π rad/rev). The following definitions have been widely used: = 550 ft·lbf/s
≈ 17696 lbm·ft2/s3
= 745.699 881 448 W ≡ 735.498 750 000 W = 9,809.5 W or
= flow rate (US gal/min) × pressure (psi) / 1714
= 550 ft·lbf/s
= 745.69988145 W In certain situations it is necessary to distinguish between the various definitions of horsepower and thus a suffix is added: hp(I) for mechanical (or imperial) horsepower, hp(M) for metric horsepower, hp(S) for boiler (or steam) horsepower and hp(E) for electrical horsepower. Hydraulic horsepower is equivalent to mechanical horsepower. The formula given above is for conversion to mechanical horsepower from the factors acting on a hydraulic system. Assuming the third CGPM (1901, CR 70) definition of standard gravity, gn=9.80665 m/s2, is used to define the pound-force as well as the kilogram force, and the international avoirdupois pound (1959), one mechanical horsepower is: Or given that 1 hp = 550 ft·lbf/s, 1 ft = 0.3048 m, 1 lbf ≈ 4.448 N, 1 J = 1 N·m, 1 W = 1 J/s: 1 hp = 746 W The various units used to indicate this definition (PS, cv, hk, pk, ks and ch) all translate to horse power in English, so it is common to see these values referred to as horsepower or hp in the press releases or media coverage of the German, French, Italian, and Japanese automobile companies. British manufacturers often intermix metric horsepower and mechanical horsepower depending on the origin of the engine in question. Sometimes the metric horsepower rating of an engine is conservative enough so that the same figure can be used for both 80/1269/EEC with metric hp and SAE J1349 with imperial hp. DIN 66036 defines one metric horsepower as the power to raise a mass of 75 kilograms against the earth's gravitational force over a distance of one metre in one second; this is equivalent to 735.49875 W or 98.6% of an imperial mechanical horsepower. In 1972, the PS was rendered obsolete by EEC directives, when it was replaced by the kilowatt as the official power measuring unit. It is still in use for commercial and advertising purposes, in addition to the kW rating, as many customers are still not familiar with the use of kilowatts for engines. Other names for the metric horsepower are the Dutch paardenkracht (pk), the French chevaux (ch), the Swedish hästkraft (hk), the Finnish hevosvoima (hv), the Norwegian and Danish hestekraft (hk), the Hungarian lóerő (LE), the Czech koňská síla and Slovak konská sila (k or ks), the Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian konjska snaga (KS),the Bulgarian "Конска сила", the Macedonian Коњска сила (KC), the Polish koń mechaniczny and Slovenian konjska moč (KM) and the Romanian cal-putere (CP) which all equal the German Pferdestärke (PS). In addition, the capital form CV is used in Italy and France as a unit for tax horsepower, short for, respectively, cavalli vapore and chevaux vapeur (steam horses). CV is a non-linear rating of a motor vehicle for tax purposes. The CV rating, or fiscal power, is $\scriptstyle\left(\tfrac{P}{40}\right)^{1.6} + \tfrac{U}{45}$, where P is the maximum power in kilowatts and U is the amount of CO2 emitted in grams per kilometre. The term for CO2 measurements has only been included in the definition since 1998, so older ratings in CV are not directly comparable. The fiscal power has found its way into naming of automobile models, such as the popular Citroën deux-chevaux. The cheval-vapeur (ch) unit should not be confused with the French cheval fiscal (CV). In the 19th century, the French had their own unit, which they used instead of the CV or horsepower. It was called the poncelet and was abbreviated p. The horsepower used for electrical machines is defined as exactly 746 W. The nameplates on electrical motors show their power output, not their power input. Outside the United States watts are generally used for electrical power applications. Drawbar horsepower (dbhp) is the power a railway locomotive has available to haul a train or an agricultural tractor to pull an implement. This is a measured figure rather than a calculated one. A special railway car called a dynamometer car coupled behind the locomotive keeps a continuous record of the drawbar pull exerted, and the speed. From these, the power generated can be calculated. To determine the maximum power available, a controllable load is required; it is normally a second locomotive with its brakes applied, in addition to a static load. If the drawbar force ($F$) is measured in pounds-force (lbf) and speed ($v$) is measured in miles per hour (mph), then the drawbar power ($P$) in horsepower (hp) is: Example: How much power is needed to pull a drawbar load of 2,025 pounds-force at 5 miles per hour? The constant 375 is because 1 hp = 375 lbf·mph. If other units are used, the constant is different. When using a coherent system of units, such as SI (watts, newtons, and metres per second), no constant is needed, and the formula becomes $P = Fv$. This measure was instituted by the Royal Automobile Club in Britain and was used to denote the power of early 20th-century British cars. Many cars took their names from this figure (hence the Austin Seven and Riley Nine), while others had names such as "40/50 hp", which indicated the RAC figure followed by the true measured power. Taxable horsepower does not reflect developed horsepower; rather, it is a calculated figure based on the engine's bore size, number of cylinders, and a (now archaic) presumption of engine efficiency. As new engines were designed with ever-increasing efficiency, it was no longer a useful measure, but was kept in use by UK regulations which used the rating for tax purposes. This is equal to the displacement in cubic inches divided by 10π then divided again by the stroke in inches. Since taxable horsepower was computed based on bore and number of cylinders, not based on actual displacement, it gave rise to engines with 'undersquare' dimensions (bore smaller than stroke) this tended to impose an artificially low limit on rotational speed (rpm), hampering the potential power output and efficiency of the engine. The situation persisted for several generations of four- and six-cylinder British engines: for example, Jaguar's 3.4-litre XK engine of the 1950s had six cylinders with a bore of 83 mm (3.27 in) and a stroke of 106 mm (4.17 in), where most American automakers had long since moved to oversquare (large bore, short stroke) V-8s (see, for example, the early Chrysler Hemi). The power of an engine may be measured or estimated at several points in the transmission of the power from its generation to its application. A number of names are used for the power developed at various stages in this process, but none is a clear indicator of either the measurement system or definition used. In the case of an engine dynamometer, power is measured at the engine's flywheel. With a chassis dynamometer or rolling road, power output is measured at the driving wheels. This accounts for the significant power loss through the drive train. In general: All the above assumes that no power inflation factors have been applied to any of the readings. Engine designers use expressions other than horsepower to denote objective targets or performance, such as brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). This is a coefficient of theoretical brake horsepower and cylinder pressures during combustion. Nominal horsepower (nhp) is an early 19th-century rule of thumb used to estimate the power of steam engines. nhp = 7 x area of piston x equivalent piston speed/33,000 For paddle ships the piston speed was estimated as 129.7 x (stroke)1/3.35 For the nominal horsepower to equal the actual power it would be necessary for the mean steam pressure in the cylinder during the stroke to be 48 kPa (7 psi) and for the piston speed to be of the order of 54–75 m/min. Indicated horsepower (ihp) is the theoretical power of a reciprocating engine if it is completely frictionless in converting the expanding gas energy (piston pressure × displacement) in the cylinders. It is calculated from the pressures developed in the cylinders, measured by a device called an engine indicator – hence indicated horsepower. As the piston advances throughout its stroke, the pressure against the piston generally decreases, and the indicator device usually generates a graph of pressure vs stroke within the working cylinder. From this graph the amount of work performed during the piston stroke may be calculated. It was the figure normally used for steam engines in the 19th century but is misleading because the actual power output may only be 70% to 90% of the indicated horsepower. Brake horsepower (bhp) is the measure of an engine's horsepower before the loss in power caused by the gearbox, alternator, differential, water pump, and other auxiliary components such as power steering pump, muffled exhaust system, etc. Brake refers to a device which was used to load an engine and hold it at a desired rotational speed. During testing, the output torque and rotational speed were measured to determine the brake horsepower. Horsepower was originally measured and calculated by use of the "indicator" (a James Watt invention of the late 18th century), and later by means of a De Prony brake connected to the engine's output shaft. More recently, an engine dynamometer is used instead of a De Prony brake. Although the output delivered to the driving wheels is less than that obtainable at the engine's crankshaft, a chassis dynamometer gives an indication of an engine's "real world" horsepower after losses in the drive train and gearbox. This gives a reasonably accurate indication of how a wheeled vehicle engine will perform once on the road. Shaft horsepower (shp) is the power delivered to the propeller shafts of a steamship (or one powered by diesel engines or nuclear power), or an aircraft powered by a piston engine or a gas turbine engine, and the rotors of a helicopter. This shaft horsepower can be measured with instruments, or estimated from the indicated horsepower and a standard figure for the losses in the transmission (typical figures are around 10%). This measure is not commonly used in the automobile industry, because in that context drive train losses can become significant. Engine power test codes determine how the power and torque of an automobile engine is measured and corrected. Correction factors are used to adjust power and torque measurements to standard atmospheric conditions to provide a more accurate comparison between engines as they are affected by the pressure, humidity, and temperature of ambient air. There exist several standards for this purpose, some described below. Prior to the 1972 model year, American automakers rated and advertised their engines in brake horsepower (bhp), frequently referred to as SAE gross horsepower, because it was measured in accord with the protocols defined in SAE standards J245 and J1995. As with other brake horsepower test protocols, SAE gross hp was measured using a stock test engine, generally running with few belt-driven accessories and sometimes fitted with long tube test headers in lieu of the OEM exhaust manifolds. The atmospheric correction standards for barometric pressure, humidity and temperature for testing were relatively idealistic. In the United States, the term bhp fell into disuse in 1971-72, as automakers began to quote power in terms of SAE net horsepower in accord with SAE standard J1349. Like SAE gross and other brake horsepower protocols, SAE Net hp is measured at the engine's crankshaft, and so does not account for transmission losses. However, the SAE net power testing protocol calls for standard production-type belt-driven accessories, air cleaner, emission controls, exhaust system, and other power-consuming accessories. This produces ratings in closer alignment with the power produced by the engine as it is actually configured and sold. In 2005, the SAE introduced "SAE Certified Power" with SAE J2723. This test is voluntary and is in itself not a separate engine test code but a certification of either J1349 or J1995 after which the manufacturer is allowed to advertise "Certified to SAE J1349" or "Certified to SAE J1995" depending on which test standard have been followed. To attain certification the test must follow the SAE standard in question, take place in an ISO9000/9002 certified facility and be witnessed by an SAE approved third party. A few manufacturers such as Honda and Toyota switched to the new ratings immediately, with multi-directional results; the rated output of Cadillac's supercharged Northstar V8 jumped from 440 to 469 hp (330 to 350 kW) under the new tests, while the rating for Toyota's Camry 3.0 L 1MZ-FE V6 fell from 210 to 190 hp (160 to 140 kW). The company's Lexus ES 330 and Camry SE V6 were previously rated at 225 hp (168 kW) but the ES 330 dropped to 218 hp (163 kW) while the Camry declined to 210 hp (160 kW). The first engine certified under the new program was the 7.0 L LS7 used in the 2006 Chevrolet Corvette Z06. Certified power rose slightly from 500 to 505 hp (373 to 377 kW). While Toyota and Honda are retesting their entire vehicle lineups, other automakers generally are retesting only those with updated powertrains. For example, the 2006 Ford Five Hundred is rated at 203 horsepower, the same as that of 2005 model. However, the 2006 rating does not reflect the new SAE testing procedure as Ford is not going to spend the extra expense of retesting its existing engines. Over time, most automakers are expected to comply with the new guidelines. SAE tightened its horsepower rules to eliminate the opportunity for engine manufacturers to manipulate factors affecting performance such as how much oil was in the crankcase, engine control system calibration, and whether an engine was tested with premium fuel. In some cases, such can add up to a change in horsepower ratings. A road test editor at Edmunds.com, John Di Pietro, said decreases in horsepower ratings for some '06 models are not that dramatic. For vehicles like a midsize family sedan, it is likely that the reputation of the manufacturer will be more important. DIN 70020 is a standard from German DIN regarding road vehicles. Because the German word for horsepower is Pferdestärke, in Germany it is commonly abbreviated to PS. DIN hp is measured at the engine's output shaft, and is usually expressed in metric (Pferdestärke) rather than mechanical horsepower. ECE R24 is a UN standard for the approval of compression ignition engine emissions, installation and measurement of engine power. It is similar to DIN 70020 standard, but with different requirements for connecting an engine's fan during testing causing it to absorb less power from the engine. ECE R85 is a UN standard for the approval of internal combustion engines with regard to the measurement of the net power. 80/1269/EEC of 16 December 1980 is a European Union standard for road vehicle engine power. JIS D 1001 is a Japanese net, and gross, engine power test code for automobiles or trucks having a spark ignition, diesel engine, or fuel injection engine.
import car Coupes

The Toyota Supra is a sports car/grand tourer that was produced by Toyota Motor Corporation from 1978 to 2002. The styling of the Toyota Supra was derived from the Toyota Celica, but it was both longer and wider. Starting in mid-1986, the Supra (in its third generation, Mark III) became a separate model from the Celica. In turn, Toyota also stopped using the prefix Celica and began just calling the car Supra. Owing to the similarity and past of the Celica's name, it is frequently mistaken for the Supra, and vice versa. First, second and third generation Supras were assembled at Tahara plant in Tahara, Aichi while the MKIV Supra was assembled at the Motomachi plant in Toyota City.

The Supra also traces much of its roots back to the Toyota 2000GT with the main instance being its engine. The first three generations were offered with a direct descendant to the Toyota Crown's and 2000GT's M engine. All four generations of Supra produced have an inline 6-cylinder engine. Interior aspects were also similar, as was the chassis code "A".

Toyota Horsepower

During its history the Toyota Supra has enjoyed considerable success in a variety of different motorsports.

The Toyota JZ engine family is a series of inline-6 automobile engines. A replacement for the M-series inline-6 engines, the JZ engines were 24-valve DOHC engines. The JZ engine was offered in 2.5- and 3.0-litre versions.

A sports car (sportscar is a small, usually two seat, two door automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling. Sports cars may be spartan or luxurious but high maneuverability and minimum weight are requisite.