Can a toyota supra get 1000 horsepower?


"Supra" -Most overrated japanese import car, capable of producing more than 1000 hp on a stock block but the powerband is useless.

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Toyota UZ engine
The Toyota UZ engine family is a 32-valve quad-camshaft V8 piston engine series used in Toyota's luxury offerings and sport utility vehicles. Three basic versions have been produced, the 1UZ-FE, 2UZ-FE, and 3UZ-FE. The UZ series was mostly replaced by the UR series but the 3UZ-FE continues to be produced for the current model Crown Majesta 4WD (Japanese market only). The 4.0 L (3,968 cc or 242.1 cu in) all-alloy 1UZ-FE debuted in 1989 in the first generation Lexus LS 400/Toyota Celsior and the engine was progressively released across a number of other models in the Toyota/Lexus range. The engine is oversquare by design, with a bore size of 87.5 mm (3.44 in) and stroke of 82.5 mm (3.25 in). It has proved to be a strong, reliable and smooth powerplant with features such as 6-bolt main bearings and belt-driven quad-camshafts. The water pump is also driven by the cam belt. The connecting rods and crankshaft are constructed of steel. The pistons are hypereutectic. Its resemblance to a race engine platform (6 bolt cross mains and over square configuration) was confirmed in 2007 by David Currier (in an interview with, vice president of TRD USA, stating that the 1UZ platform was based on CART/IRL engine design. It was planned to be used on GT500 vehicles, however its subsequent use in the Daytona Prototype use was not planned. In its standard, original trim with 10:1 compression, power output is 191 kW (256 hp), torque of 353 N·m (260 lb·ft). The engine was slightly revised in 1995 with lighter connecting rods and pistons and an increased compression ratio to 10.4:1 resulting in peak power of 195 kW (261 hp) and torque of 363 N·m (268 lb·ft). In 1997, Toyota's VVT-i variable valve timing technology was introduced along with a further compression ratio increase to 10.5:1, bumping power and torque to 216 kW (290 hp) and 407 N·m (300 lb·ft). In the GS400 application, output was rated at 300 hp and 310 lb·ft of torque. The 1UZ-FE was voted to the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 1998 through 2000. Applications: The 2UZ-FE was a 4.7 L (4,664 cc or 284.6 cu in) version built in Tahara, Aichi, Japan and at Toyota Motor Manufacturing Alabama. Unlike its other UZ counterparts, this version uses a cast iron block to increase durability, as it was designed for low-reving, high-torque pickup and SUV applications. Its bore is 94 mm (3.7 in) and stroke is 84 mm (3.3 in). Output varies by implementation, but one VVT-i variant produces 202 kW (271 hp) at 4800 rpm with 427 N·m (315 lbf·ft) of torque at 3400 rpm. JDM versions produce 173 kW (232 hp) at 4800 rpm and 422 N·m (311 lbf·ft) at 3600 rpm, while Australian models produce 170 kW (230 hp) at 4800 rpm and 410 N·m (300 lbf·ft) at 3600 rpm. Like the 1UZ-FE it has aluminum DOHC cylinder heads, MFI fuel injection, 4 valves per cylinder with bucket tappets, one-piece cast camshafts, and a cast aluminum intake manifold. For 2010, it was replaced by the 1UR-FE in all applications. Applications: Toyota Racing Development offered a bolt-on supercharger kit for the 2000-2003 Tundra and the 2003 GX 470. Another 2UZ-FE variation adds VVT-i and electronic throttle control. Applications: The 3UZ-FE, is a 4.3 L (4,292 cc or 261.9 cu in) version built in Japan. Bore is 91 mm (3.6 in) and stroke is 82.5 mm (3.25 in). Output is 216 to 224 kW (290 to 300 hp) at 5600 rpm with 441 N·m (325 lb·ft) of torque at 3400 rpm. It has an aluminum engine block and aluminum DOHC cylinder heads. It uses SEFI fuel injection, has 4 valves per cylinder with VVT-i. In 2003, the engine was linked to a six-speed automatic in applications with improved fuel efficiency. A 4.4L version replaced the 3S-GTE as the engine used in Toyota's 500 hp (370 kW) Super GT race cars up to 2009][ and a 5.0L version was used in the Grand American Road Racing (Grand Am) Series. Applications: In 1997, the US Federal Aviation Administration granted production certification for the FV2400-2TC, a twin-turbocharged airplane powerplant based on the UZ series Lexus engine. The 360 hp (270 kW) FV2400 was developed in partnership with Hamilton Standard, which provided the digital engine-control system. The goal was to produce a four-seat propeller aircraft. In 1998, a marine derivative of the UZ powerplant was produced for boating applications. The 4.0 L VT300i engine, producing 300 hp (220 kW) at 6000 rpm and 310 lbf·ft (420 N·m) at 4200 rpm, used the same block as the UZ engine on the Lexus SC 400, GS 400, and LS 400. The marine engine was used on the Toyota Epic waterski boat.

Toyota Supra
The Toyota Supra is a sports car/grand tourer that was produced by Toyota Motor Corporation from 1978 to 2002. The styling of the Toyota Supra was derived from the Toyota Celica, but it was both longer and wider. Starting in mid-1986, the Supra (in its third generation, Mark III) became a separate model from the Celica. In turn, Toyota also stopped using the prefix Celica and began just calling the car Supra. Owing to the similarity and past of the Celica's name, it is frequently mistaken for the Supra, and vice versa. First, second and third generation Supras were assembled at Tahara plant in Tahara, Aichi while the MKIV Supra was assembled at the Motomachi plant in Toyota City. The Supra also traces much of its roots back to the Toyota 2000GT with the main instance being its engine. The first three generations were offered with a direct descendant to the Toyota Crown's and 2000GT's M engine. All four generations of Supra produced have an inline 6-cylinder engine. Interior aspects were also similar, as was the chassis code "A". Along with this name and car Toyota also included its own logo for the Supra. It is derived from the original Celica logo, being blue instead of orange. This logo was used until January 1986, when the Mark III Supra was introduced. The new logo was similar in size, with orange writing on a red background, but without the dragon design. That logo, in turn, was on Supras until 1991 when Toyota switched to its current oval company logo. (the dragon logo was a Celica logo regardless of what color it was. It appeared on the first two generations of the Supra because they were officially Toyota Celicas. The dragon logo was used for the Celica line until it too was discontinued.) In 1998, Toyota ceased sales of the Supra in the United States and in 2002 Toyota officially stopped production of the Supra in Japan. As an iconic sports car, the Supra has appeared in numerous video games, movies, music videos and TV shows. Some of the most notable appearances include the Grand Theft Auto, Gran Turismo, Forza Motorsport, Need for Speed, and Midnight Club series of video games and The Fast and the Furious film series. 1,988 cc (1.988 L; 121.3 cu in) M-EU I6
2,563 cc (2.563 L; 156.4 cu in) 4M-E I6
5-speed W50 manual
4-speed A40D automatic
The first generation Supra was based largely upon the Toyota Celica liftback, but was longer by 129.5 mm (5.10 in). The doors and rear section were shared with the Celica but the front panels were elongated to accommodate the Inline-6 instead of the stock Celica's 4-cylinder engine. Toyota's original plan for the Supra at this time was to make it a competitor to the very popular Datsun (now Nissan) Z-car. In April 1978 Toyota began production of the Mark I Supra in Japan, as the Toyota Celica XX, and sold alongside the Celica at Japanese dealership sales channels called Toyota Corolla Store. The Japanese Mark I was offered with a 110 hp (82 kW) 2.0 L 12-valve SOHC inline-6 engine (M-EU, chassis code MA45) or the 110 hp (82 kW) 2,563 cc (2.563 L; 156.4 cu in) 12-valve SOHC inline-6 engine (4M-E, chassis code MA46). The Japanese Supra was equipped with the smaller 2.0 L engine so that buyers wouldn't incur an additional tax under vehicle size and engine displacement regulations. Both engines were equipped with electronic fuel injection. The Supra was first exported outside of Japan in January 1979. The export version of the Mark I was originally equipped with a 110 hp (82 kW) 2,563 cc (2.563 L; 156.4 cu in) 12-valve SOHC inline-6 engine (4M-E, chassis code MA46). Drive train options for the Mark I were either a 5-speed manual (W50) or an optional 4-speed automatic transmission (A40D). Both transmissions featured an overdrive gear. The top gear in the 5-speed was its overdrive gear whereas the automatic transmission featured an overdrive gear that would engage at speeds over 35 mph (56 km/h). The drive train for the Supra retained the T series solid rear axle configuration of the Celica in the Japanese MA45 version and a larger F series (and optional Limited Slip Differential) in the MA46 and MA47. The car also came standard with 4-wheel disc brakes and featured a four-link rear suspension with coil springs, lateral track bar, and stabilizer bar. The front suspension consisted of MacPherson struts and a stabilizer bar. On the inside of the Supra one had an option of power windows and power locks as part of the convenience package. The convenience package also included cruise control and special door trim with door pull straps, with an optional sunroof. As for standard features, in the center console there was an extendible map light and a flip-top armrest, which provided storage. Some other features were the tilt steering wheel, deep zippered pockets on the backs of the front seats, and tonneau cover under the liftback. The dashboard also contained a state of the art (at the time) AM/FM/MPX 4-speaker stereo radio, analog clock, and tachometer as part of the instrument panel. The mid 1979 changes for the 1980 model year US version were mostly cosmetic. The interior received a redesigned center console and a digital quartz clock. On the exterior were redesigned side view mirrors, 14x5" aluminum wheels are now standard (the previous year had steel wheels with plastic wheel covers standard and the aluminum wheels were optional). In addition body molded mudflaps became available. On the copper metallic and white cars the mudflaps were painted the body color while the mudflaps were left black on all other colors. On the rear of the mudflaps, the word "Celica" was painted in white lettering. The official Supra Site also notes that there was an addition of optional leather-trimmed seating and automatic climate-control. In August 1980 (for the 1981 model year), the Supra received an upgrade in displacement with the 2,759 cc (2.759 L; 168.4 cu in) 5M-E engine. It is still a 12-valve SOHC engine, but makes 116 hp (87 kW) and 145 lb·ft (197 N·m) of torque. The cars automatic transmission was changed to the revised Toyota A43D and it gained a revised final drive gearing. Because of the change in engine and transmission they dubbed a new chassis code of MA47. In the final year of the Mark I Supra, it achieved a 0–60 mph time of 10.24 seconds and finished the 1/4 mile in 19.5 seconds at 77.7 mph (125.0 km/h). Also in 1980 (for the 1981 model year), a new Sports Performance Package became an option, which included sport suspension, raised white letter tires, and front and rear spoilers. This also marked the last year that the 8-track tape player was offered in any Supra.
1,988 cc (1.988 L; 121.3 cu in) M-TEU I6
1,988 cc (1.988 L; 121.3 cu in) M-TE I6
1,988 cc (1.988 L; 121.3 cu in) 1G-EU I6
1,988 cc (1.988 L; 121.3 cu in) 1G-GEU I6
2,759 cc (2.759 L; 168.4 cu in) 5M-E I6
5-speed W58 and W55 manual
4-speed A43DL automatic
In late 1981, Toyota completely redesigned the Celica Supra as well as the entire Celica lineup for its 1982 production year. In Japan, they were known as Celica XX, but everywhere else the Celica Supra name was used. Still being based around the Celica platform, there were several key differences, most notably the design of the front end and fully retractable pop-up headlights. Other differences would be the inline-6 still present in the Supra instead of the inline-4 as well as an increase in length and wheelbase to conform with the overall larger engine. Toyota's continued market competition with Nissan is shown by the Supra's use of a rear hatch sun shade to avoid the louvres popularly associated with the Z car. Owing to an increase in the Supra's width, it was no longer regarded as a "compact" under Japanese dimension regulations. In the North American market, the Celica Supra was available in two distinct models. There was the Performance Type (P-type henceforth) and the Luxury Type (L-type henceforth). While being mechanically identical, they were differentiated by the available options; tire sizes, wheel sizes, and body trim. The P-type had fiberglass fender flares over the wheel wells, while the L-type did not. The P-type was also standard with the more sporty 8-way adjustable seats. The P-type did not get the option of a leather interior until 1983. All editions of the P-Type had the same 14x7-inch aluminum alloy wheels and throughout the years the L-Type had 14x5.5-inch wheels until 1985 when they were changed to a P-type styled 15x6. The L-type also had the option of a digital dash with trip computer; some Canadian models had this option as well as a few rare instances of American models. The digital dash featured a digital tachometer, digital speedometer, and electronic fuel level and coolant level gauges. The trip computer could calculate and display various things such as fuel economy in miles-per-gallon, estimated time of arrival (ETA), and distance remaining to destination. Excluding the 1982 model, all P-types were available with headlight washers as an option, but the L-types were never fitted with such an option. Although gear ratios changed throughout the years all P-types came as standard with a limited slip differential. For 1982, in the North American market, the Celica Supra's engine was the 2,759 cc (2.759 L; 168.4 cu in) 12-valve (2 valves per cylinder) DOHC 5M-GE. Power output was 145 hp (108 kW) and 155 lb·ft (210 N·m) of torque. The engine utilized an 8.8:1 compression ratio to achieve the power and featured a vacuum advanced distributor. When the car debuted it clocked a 0–60 time of 9.8 seconds and netted a 17.2 second 1/4 mile at 80 mph (130 km/h) The standard transmission for this year was the W58 5-speed manual with the A43DL 4-speed automatic transmission being an option for L-types. Both transmissions featured an overdrive gear and the automatic featured a locking torque converter. The top gear in the 5-speed was its overdrive whereas the automatic transmission featured an overdrive gear that would engage at speeds over 35 mph (56 km/h). The 1982 models' rear differential featured a 3.72:1 ratio. The Celica Supra's 4-wheel independent suspension was specially tuned and designed by Lotus and featured variable assisted power rack-and-pinion steering and MacPherson struts up front. As for the rear, it had semi-trailing arm suspension with coil springs and a stabilizer bar. Braking on the Celica Supra was handled by 4-wheel disc brakes. On the inside this generation had standard power windows, power door locks, and power mirrors as well as a tilt steering wheel. The power door lock was located in the center console next to the power mirror control. The analog dash of this year only went to 85 mph (140 km/h) in North America. The optional automatic climate control on the Mark I was renovated and was now seen as a standard feature on the Mark II. Cruise control was standard in this generation. Toyota also included the retractable map light as standard, just like with Mark I Supras. Some options included the addition of a sunroof, two-tone paint schemes, and 5-speaker AM/FM/MPX tuner with cassette. The optional cassette stereo featured a 105-watt power amplifier and a 7-band graphic equalizer to control tone. The standard stereo was a 5-channel AM/FM/MPX tuner. Leather was an option on L-Types this year, but P-types were stuck with standard striped cloth. The AM/FM antenna was integrated into the front windshield rather than a typical external mast antenna. There was a key lock on the gas tank door (in lieu of remote release) and the hatch and rear bumper were black regardless of paint color for the rest of the car. The P-types were available with an optional rear sunshade above the hatch glass. The lights in the rear featured a reverse light in the center and the door handles opened the doors by pulling sideways. The front nose badge and B-pillar only read "SUPRA" for the first several months of production, but were changed to read "CELICA SUPRA" midway through the model year. L-types had front and rear mudflaps but P-types of this year did not. For the 1983 models not much was altered, but there was an increase in power output to 150 hp (112 kW) and 159 lb·ft (216 N·m) of torque from the same 5M-GE. The only real change in the engine area was the switch from a vacuum advanced to an electronic advanced distributor, yet that did not increase the power. Toyota switched to a 4.10:1 rear gear ratio for the P-Type and a 3.73:1 for the L-Type. As for the optional automatic transmission they replaced the A43DL 4-speed with a newly designed A43DE 4-speed. It featured an electronic controller that would adjust its shift pattern for a balance between performance and economy. It was the first in the industry to provide an "Electronically Controlled Transmission" (ECT). This allowed the driver to choose either the "Power" driving mode or "Normal" driving mode at the touch of the button. The Power mode provided the quickest acceleration and the "Normal" mode provided the best all-around performance. On the inside of the car there were virtually no changes, but changes to the exterior included a switch to a power mast antenna, mudflaps now on all models, and the addition of headlight washers on P-types. All B-pillar and nose badges for cars sold in North America read "Celica Supra" and only P-Types were available in two-tone color schemes. In 1984, Toyota changed quite a bit on the Supra. Power output was increased on the 5-speed models with a bump up to 160 hp (119 kW) and 163 lb·ft (221 N·m) of torque. The increase was achieved by a mixture of a redesigned intake manifold with "D"-shaped intake runners and an increase in compression ratio to: 9.2:1. Another notable change in the 5-speeds was the switch to a 4.30:1 gear ratio in the rear differential. All automatic Supras retained the previous years power numbers, but the rear gear ratio was changed to a 4.10:1. The most notable exterior change was the switch to wraparound front turn signals. Also on the outside the tail-lights were redesigned and the hatch received a billboard "SUPRA" sticker instead of the smaller sticker, which was previously positioned on the right. The rear hatch and bumper was changed and received the same color as the rest of the car (instead of the black of previous years). The door handles were also switched around, opening by pulling up instead of sideways. This year Toyota also decided to offer two-tone paint schemes on both the P-Type and L-Type. Some interior controls such as the steering wheel, cruise control, and door lock switch were redesigned. Toyota encompassed a 130 mph (210 km/h) speedometer instead of the traditional 85 mph (140 km/h) one and the automatic climate control display was also changed. The previous year's cassette/equalizer stereo option was now made a standard feature. The Supra was altered again in 1985. On the engine side, power output was increased to 161 hp (120 kW) and 169 lb·ft (229 N·m) of torque. The good news was that all Supras this year had that same amount of power (both automatics and 5-speeds). The engine received a redesigned throttle position sensor (TPS) as well as a new EGR system and knock sensor. With the slight increase in power the Supra was able to propel itself from 0–60 mph in 8.4 seconds and netting a 16.1 second quarter mile at 85 mph (137 km/h). Other changes would be a redesigned, more "integrated" sunshade and spoiler on the rear hatch. The rear spoiler was changed from a one piece to a two piece spoiler. Oddly the L-types of this year were not available with a leather interior, but P-types were. Toyota added a standard factory theft deterrent system and the outside mirrors were equipped with a defogger that activated with the rear defroster. All Supras this year received automatic-off lights that also encompassed an automatic illuminated entry and fade-out system. While 1985 was to be the last year of the second generation model, delays in production of the third generation model led to a surplus of second generation Supras. During the first half of 1986 the 1985 Mark II P-type was still offered for sale, with only minor cosmetic changes as well as the addition of a now mandatory rear-mounted third brake light on the hatch. These were all labelled officially as 1986 models. P-types were the only model available in 1986. The second generation Supra came in a variety of options around the world as well as only being offered during select years.
1,988 cc (1.988 L; 121.3 cu in) 1G-GTE I6
2,491 cc (2.491 L; 152.0 cu in) 1JZ-GTE I6
2,954 cc (2.954 L; 180.3 cu in) Toyota 7M-GE I6
5-speed W58 manual
5-speed R154 manual
In May 1986, Toyota was ready to release its next version of the Supra. The bonds between the Celica and the Supra were cut; they were now two completely different models. The Celica changed to front-wheel drive, utilizing the Toyota "T" platform associated with the Toyota Corona, while the Supra kept its rear-wheel-drive platform. Though the Mark II and Mark III had similar designs, the engine was updated to a more powerful 3.0 200 hp (149 kW) inline 6. Although only available in naturally aspirated trim in 1986.5, a turbocharged version of the engine was introduced in the 1987 model year. The Supra was now related mechanically to the Toyota Soarer for the Japanese market. The new Mark III Supra engine, the Toyota 7M-GE, was the flagship engine of Toyota's arsenal. Both versions of the engine contained 4 valves per cylinder and dual overhead cams. The turbocharged 7M-GTE engine was Toyota's first distributor-less engine offered in the US which used coil packs sitting on the cam covers and a cam position sensor driven by the exhaust camshaft. It was equipped with a CT26 turbocharger and was rated at 230 hp (172 kW) at 5600 rpm while the naturally aspirated 7M-GE engine was rated at 200 hp (149 kW) at 6000 rpm. Further refinement on the turbo model increased power to 232 hp (173 kW) and 254 lb·ft (344 N·m) in 1989. This was mostly due to a redesign of the wastegate. All models used the same tire size of 225/50R16 on 16x7 inch wheels. Spare tires were full-sized but on steel wheels. Owing to a large error in the factory head bolt torque specifications (likely owing to switching away from using an asbestos head gasket in lieu of a copper one), all of these engines had severe problems with blown head gaskets. Toyota never issued a recall for any of the affected vehicles. The problem could be easily fixed by replacing the head gasket and torquing the head bolts to 75 lb·ft (102 N·m) of torque. However, owing to the lack of a recall or appropriate service bulletin, the head gasket problem would recur in another 75,000 miles or so if the gasket was replaced and the bolts were retorqued to the erroneous service manual specifications of 56 lb·ft (76 N·m). With the head bolts torqued correctly, the engines were otherwise extremely durable. The naturally aspirated came as standard issue with the W58 manual transmission. The turbo versions included the more robust R154 manual transmission. Both were available with the optional 4-speed A340E automatic transmission. The third-generation Supra represented a great deal of new technology. In 1986, options available for the Supra included 3-channel ABS and TEMS which gave the driver 2 settings which affected the damper rates; a third was automatically activated at WOT, hard braking, and high speed maneuvering. HKS also made a "TEMS Controller" to hack the system and activate it on the fly, though the controllers are now nearly impossible to find. ACIS (Acoustic Controlled Induction System), a method of controlling air compression pulses inside the intake piping to increase power, was also a part of the 7M-GE's technological arsenal. All models were fitted with double wishbone suspension front and rear. A targa top was offered along with a metal power sliding sunroof (added in '91). Total Supra MkIII's produced: 108,565 The third generation Supra was introduced in May 1986 as a free standing model, officially separating it from the Celica. Whereas the Celica became a front-wheel-drive sport coupe, the Supra retained its image as a rear-wheel-drive sports/GT car. The new Supra would continue to move upscale and become a showcase for Toyota technology. Originally meant to be released in 1985, production delays caused the model to actually be introduced mid year.][ The all new Supra was powered by a 3.0-liter DOHC inline six-cylinder engine rated at 200 bhp. Notable features included an electronically controlled independent suspension (called the Toyota Electronic Modulated Suspension – TEMS), and a removable Sport-Roof panel (Targa top). Production: 33,283 The first Supra Turbo was introduced in 1987. The inter-cooled, turbo charged version of the 3.0-liter inline 6-cylinder engine boosted power to 315 bhp and 285 lb·ft (386 N·m). The Turbo model also included an engine oil cooler and integrated rear spoiler. The sports package, which was standard on the Turbo and optional on the base model, included a limited slip differential (LSD), TEMS, and headlamp washers. A new Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS) was optional on both models. Also in 87 a new beige/tan color combination was implemented, and only 1000 models were produced with this scheme. Production: 29,907 Not much changed for the 1988 year, with the exception of the dropping of two-toned brown exterior paint. The turbo spoiler brake light changed from a square, to a trapezoid shape. Seat pattern was changed from squares to lines, and "foil" on climate control and switch gear changed from light to dark gray. Production: 19,596 During the year of 1989, modifications to the wastegate actuator, feed location and engine management netted another 2 hp (1 kW) on the turbo model. The engine mount and brace were also changed in late 1989, with the exact date not known as of this writing. The changes made to the cross member and mounts made to accommodate the 1JZ engine for Japan models. Fortunately, this also allowed the 2JZ engine to be put in since they both use the same engine mounts, however wiring must still be figured out. The protective body molding was also changed by taking away the steel reinforcement. This made the molding lighter and prevented the rusting problem on the previous years. The "white package" was introduced as well, featuring white body molding and white wheels. Interior choices were limited to blue and burgundy only. Other than pure cosmetics, there was nothing different from other models. All models received rear 3 point seat belts to replace the previous years' two point lap belts. New tail lights, front bumper with integrated lower grille (as opposed to the previous years' detachable grille), side mirrors, turn signals, upper grilles, foglights, steering wheel, door panels, climate control, window switches and bezels, and stereo. Addition of coat hooks on B-pillar and removal of rear seat pockets round out interior changes. Turbo models received three piece spoiler with integrated LED brake light. 1989 also marked the end of headlight washers in the U.S. and SuperMonitor; an advanced system offered by Toyota able to calculate miles able to be traveled on current tank, ability to check vehicle codes from inside the cabin, among other features. Production: 14,544 For the 1990 model year, changes included larger protective laminate in front of rear wheels, lower redline (owing to the heavier crank with cylinders 2 & 5 counterbalanced), redesigned steering wheel with cruise control relocated to a stalk on the right side. In addition to an airbag and airbag indicator light on dash, there was also a redesign of the left side switch panel, which replaced one of the coin slots with the dimmer. Lower dash panel became a two piece design, which was also much heavier than the previous one piece panel owing to a change in material. Finally the memory lever on the steering column was removed. Production: 6,419 For the 1991 model year, the wheel design was changed to 5-spoke wheels. Both models wore 16x7 aluminum alloy wheels that were fitted with 225/50/16 tires and full-sized spares on steel wheels. Body molding changed in color to better match the exterior, however (excluding white package equipped vehicles), trim remained unpainted. The front "Supra" emblem was also changed to the current corporate oval Toyota symbol. The speedometer was also revised, and included more lines in the speedometer, that were removed in 1989, but still did not have as many (one line per mph) as 86.5 to 1988 models. New interior colors shadow gray and deep red were introduced, which marked the end of medium gray, tan and burgundy. Blue became only available on white packages, and those with blue paint. Burgundy was replaced with white package-only deep red. Every other body color received shadow gray, with leather interiors retaining medium gray seats and interior inserts. Front speakers were changed from 5" to 6.5" and the speaker cover was also enlarged to accommodate them. Production: 3,623 For 1992 leather shadow gray interiors received black seats and inserts. Non-turbo models lost the option of a targa top, and a new optional subwoofer was available. Subwoofer-equipped Supras did without the rear bins, and wooden "floor board." Instead rear carpet was molded to the spare tire, and there was a cut out for the woofer housing. Production: 1,193 The Supra was also available in two non-export models in Japan, the JZA70 with a 2.5 L 280 PS (206 kW) twin-turbo 1JZ-GTE, known as 2.5GT Twin Turbo (JZA70), and the GA70 with a 2.0 L 210 PS (154 kW) twin-turbo 1G-GTE and non turbo 1G-GEU. A special version of the 1JZ-GTE equipped JZA70, the 2.5 Twin Turbo R, had black/gray Recaro seats, a Torsen differential, additional braces to mount the diff, Bilstein suspension and uprated springs, Momo wheel and gear knob and matching interior trim. This was the fastest factory production version of the Mark III Supra, running 13.8sec 1/4 mile. This model had an option for ABS and was the lightest of all the Mark III Supras. The rarest of all JZA70 versions, the Twin Turbo limited, has the same engine package as the Twin Turbo R models it came standard with sunroof (whereas the JZA70 R did not offer this option), digital dash readout, full leather interior and optional ABS and airbag equipped steering wheel. The Turbo-A was Toyota's evolution model for Group A touring car championships all over the world which required a minimum homologation run of 500 which were only sold in Japan and was produced between August and September 1988. Some noted differences between the standard Supra and the Turbo-A model are both cosmetic and some mechanical. The engine came with a special head that had less valve shrouding, and clearance cut for higher lift cams. The turbo had a larger inducer, the intercooler had extra rows of pass tubes, the intercooler piping was larger in diameter, and it had a 65 mm throttle body, instead of the standard 7M-GTE 60 mm size. The fuel management used a MAP system, instead ot the standard Karmen Vortex AFM. The front bumper and the 3-piece spoiler and taillights were used on all Japanese market, US market, and other market vehicles starting in 1989 instead of the typical 86–88 set. The front nose however features an additional "Turbo A duct" to add airflow to the heat exchangers. Also unique was the side decal and rear badging ("3.0GT Turbo A") and a black paint job (paint code 202). All Turbo-As came standard with grey leather interior featuring a Momo-sourced steering wheel and shift knob. Its engine bay features a 266 hp (198 kW) 7M-GTEU. The car did not win as many races as hoped. Being a 3.0 L, it was forced to run with more weight where the R32 Skyline GTR did not have the same restriction. It was soon outmoded by the latter when it made its debut in 1990. For the Japanese Touring Car Championship (JTCC), Toyota would in 1991 switch to racing Corolla Levins in the lower category until the series final year in 1993. However in the less 'limited' racing it did considerably better. 2,997 cc (2.997 L; 182.9 cu in) Toyota 2JZ-GE I6
5-speed W58 manual
6-speed V16x manual
With the new model of Supra, Toyota took a big leap in the direction of a more serious high-performance car. Again using subframe, suspension and drivetrain assemblies from the Z30 Soarer (Lexus SC300/400), test model pre-production started in December 1992 with 20 models, and official mass production began in April 1993. The new Supra was completely redesigned, with rounded body styling and featured two new engines: a naturally aspirated Toyota 2JZ-GE producing 220 hp (164 kW; 223 PS) at 5800 rpm and 210 lb·ft (280 N·m) at 4800 rpm of torque and a twin turbocharged Toyota 2JZ-GTE making 276 hp (206 kW; 280 PS) and 318 lb·ft (431 N·m) of torque for the Japanese version. The styling, while modern, does seem to borrow some elements from Toyota's first grand touring sports car, the Toyota 2000GT. For the export model (America/Europe) Toyota upgraded the Supra turbo's engine (smaller, steel wheeled turbochargers, bigger fuel injectors, etc.). This increased the power output to 320 hp (239 kW; 324 PS) at 5600 rpm and 315 lb·ft (427 N·m) at 4000 rpm. The turbocharged variant could achieve 0–60 mph in as low as 4.6 seconds and 1/4 mile (402 m) in 13.1 seconds at 109 mph (175 km/h). The turbo version was tested to reach over 285 km/h (177 mph) all-stock, but the cars are restricted to just 180 km/h (112 mph) in Japan and 250 km/h (155 mph) elsewhere. European versions of the car also had an air intake on the hood. Drag coefficient is .31 for the naturally aspirated models and .32 for the turbo models but unknown with the rear spoiler. The Mark IV Supra's twin turbos operated in sequential mode, not parallel. Initially, all of the exhaust is routed to the first turbine for reduced lag. This resulted in boost and enhanced torque as early as 1800 rpm, where it already had 300 lb·ft (410 N·m) of torque. At 3500 rpm, some of the exhaust is routed to the second turbine for a "pre-boost" mode, although none of the compressor output is used by the engine at this point. At 4000 rpm, the second turbo's output is used to augment the first turbo's output. Compared to the parallel mode, sequential mode turbos provide quicker low RPM response and increased high RPM boost. This high RPM boost was also aided with technology originally present in the 7M-GE in the form of the Acoustic Control Induction System (ACIS) which is a way of managing the air compression pulses within the intake piping as to increase power. For this generation, the Supra received a new 6-speed Getrag/Toyota V160 gearbox on the turbo models while the naturally aspirated models made do with a 5-speed manual W58, revised from the previous version. Each model was offered with a 4-speed automatic with manual shifting mode. Turbo models were equipped with larger brakes and tires than naturally aspirated models. All vehicles were equipped with 5-spoke aluminium alloy wheels and a space saver spare tire on a steel wheel to save weight and space. Toyota took measures to reduce the weight of the current model compared to the previous model. Aluminium was used for the hood, targa top (if so equipped), front crossmember, oil and transmission pans, and the suspension upper A-arms. Other measures included hollow carpet fibers, magnesium-alloy steering wheel, plastic gas tank and lid, gas injected rear spoiler, and a single pipe exhaust. Despite having more features such as dual airbags, traction control, larger brakes, wheels, tires, and an additional turbo, the car was at least 200 lb (91 kg) lighter than its predecessor. The base model with a manual transmission had a curb weight of 3,210 lb (1,460 kg). The Sport Roof added 40 lb (18 kg) while the automatic transmission added 55 lb (25 kg). It had a 51:49 (front:rear) weight distribution. The turbo model came in as 3,450 lb (1,560 kg) with the manual and the automatic added another 10 lb (4.5 kg). Weight distribution was 53% front/47% rear. The Supra was heavier than the spartan Mazda RX-7 and all aluminium bodied Acura/Honda NSX, but it was lighter than the Nissan 300ZX and Mitsubishi 3000GT VR-4. For the 1996 model year in the US, the turbo model was only available with the automatic transmission owing to OBD-II certification requirements. The targa roof was also made standard on all turbo models. For 1997, the manual transmission returned for the optional engine along with a redesign of the tail lights, headlights, front fascia, chromed wheels, and other minor changes such as the radio and steering wheel designs. All 1997 models included badges indicating "Limited Edition 15th Anniversary". All turbo models came standard with the rear spoiler. For 1998, updates were a 3-spoke steering wheel and redesigned radio. In Japan, the turbo engines were installed with VVT-i. The SZ-R model was also updated with the introduction of a six-speed Getrag V161 transmission, the same used for the twin-turbo RZ models. The stock Mark IV Supra chassis has also proven an effective platform for roadracing, with several top 20 and top 10 One Lap Of America finishes in the SSGT1 class. Despite its curb weight, in 1994 the Mark IV managed remarkable skidpad ratings of 0.95 lateral g's (200 ft) and 0.98 lateral g's (300 ft) The Mark IV Supra also featured a four-sensor four-channel track tuned ABS system with yaw control whereby each caliper is sensored and the brakes are controlled individually according to the speed, angle, and pitch of the approaching corner. This unique Formula One-inspired braking system allowed the Supra Turbo to record a 70 mph (113 km/h) -0 braking distance of 149 ft (45 m), the best braking performance of any production car tested in 1997 by Car and Driver magazine. This record was finally broken in 2004 by a Porsche Carrera GT, which does it in 145 ft (44 m) . The US and UK market Supra featured bigger injectors, steel turbines and bigger inlet cam and had emissions in the range of 259 g/km CO2 despite the addition of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). The Japanese market Supra had CO2 emissions in the range of 224 g/km.][ Sales to Canada ceased in 1996, and to the US in 1998. The Turbo was not available in 1998 in California Air Resources Board (CARB) states. Production continued in Japan until August 2002, ceasing owing to restrictive emission standards. Motor Trend has reported a possible Supra successor could be based on the Toyota FT-HS (Future Toyota-Hybrid Sport), which debuted at the 2007 North American International Auto Show. A Supra successor could be powered by a 3.5-liter V-6 hybrid system generating over 400 hp. If given the green light for production, the rear-drive coupe is expected to compete with the Nissan GT-R in terms of price and performance. Toyota says it is not rushing the Supra successor but instead is waiting to see how the sales and interests of its GT86/FR-S goes. If Toyota maintains its plans, it should release a new Supra model in late 2014 or early 2015. In 2010, Toyota applied for a trademark to the Supra name. The trademark must be used within three years for it to be valid. In December 2011, Autoguide reported a possible Supra replacement that would sit above the Toyota 86. Tetsuya Tada, the chief engineer of the Toyota 86/Scion FR-S told reporters in Germany "the president (Akio Toyoda) has asked me to make a successor to the Supra as soon as possible."

Toyota Cressida
The Toyota Cressida was a mid-size sedan marketed by Toyota from December 1976 to February 1993 through four generations. It was the flagship sedan of Toyota in the United States. The same chassis with slightly different bodies was available in other countries as the Toyota Mark II, Toyota Chaser and Toyota Cresta. The Cressida name was retired in 1992 (1993 in Australia), but the chassis and Mark II, Chaser, and Cresta names continued production in Japan until the early 2000s. In total, Toyota sold 353,053 Cressidas in the United States. The Cressida was available worldwide in a variety of body styles and engines — including the 6-cylinder G-series, M-series, and the 4-cylinder R-series gasoline engines, as well as the 4-cylinder L series diesel. The name "Cressida" derives from the lead character in William Shakespeare's play Troilus and Cressida. All Cressidas were manufactured at the Motomachi Plant in Toyota City, Aichi, Japan. The first generation Cressida (designated X30 series) was available as a sedan (X30, X32), estate wagon (X35, X36) or hardtop coupe (X30, X31). In Japan, it was sold as both the Toyota Mark II and the more upmarket Cressida. Depending on the market it was sold in, it had the 4M carbureted engine (MX32, MX36), the 18R engine (RX30, RX32, RX35) or 3T engine (TX30). The North American models started with the carbureted 4M engine (MX32) but in mid-1978 the fuel-injected 4M-E replaced its carbureted counterpart – this was one of the first Toyotas in the US to use fuel injection. In 1979, the MSRP in the US was . In New Zealand, where it was locally assembled and sold in a highly specified GL form (replacing the 2.8-litre Crown which had been hit by high sales taxes on two-litre-plus engine sizes), it had the 18R engine. Standard features included air conditioning, automatic transmission (a 5-speed manual was available), power steering, rear seat armrests, AM/FM cassette stereo with amplifier, reclining front seats, and a rear window defroster. The automatic transmission was a four-speed overdrive with an overdrive lockout. Power windows were optional. Soundproofing was extensive, and the Cressida was famous for being one of the quietest cars on the road at the time.][ In the United Kingdom, the Cressida was available in both sedan and wagon bodystyles. The only engine available was the 18R and there was one trim level, badged De Luxe. Contrary to popular belief, it was not the same as DX specifications on other Toyota cars, but a more upmarket version of the DX trim level. The Toyota Carina sedan and wagon also sold in the United Kingdom at this time were also badged as De Luxe (but rebadged as DX from 1980 onwards). The second generation Cressida, the MX63, was a significant redesign from the previous generation. Gone was the coupé version, but a more up-to-date body style was new for the sedan and wagon. Changes from the previous generation included a larger engine, now up to 116 hp (87 kW) (and using electronic fuel injection). The 5M-E would power the 1981 and 1982 models before it was superseded by the 5M-GE, a DOHC engine with a substantially higher power rating, 143 hp (107 kW) in 1983 and 156 hp (116 kW) in 1984. North American X60-series Cressidas all received versions of the 2.8-liter inline-six engine, while in other markets smaller units were often available. This model was again assembled in New Zealand initially only with a two-litre, four-cylinder petrol engine and five-speed manual or optional three-speed automatic transmission. Various markets received different bodywork, combining various elements of the Mark II, Chaser, and Cresta variants. In 1983, the Cressida was refreshed and gained an independent semi-trailing link rear suspension, rear vented disc brakes, and the 5M-GE engine. Much of this technology came from the Toyota Supra parts bin with minor differences. A five-speed manual transmission was available, but cars equipped with it were considerably more rare than automatic versions. The electronically controlled A43DE automatic transmission was another improvement over the previous hydraulically controlled A43DL transmission and had three modes: Power, Normal, and Economy. This iteration was praised for its handling, ride, quiet interior, and most of all, its reliability; the Cressida was quickly gaining a reputation for outstanding ownership. In August 1983, Toyota chairman Eiji Toyoda initiated the F1 project ("Flagship" and "No. 1 vehicle"; alternatively called the "Circle-F" project), a clandestine effort aimed at producing a world-class luxury sedan for international markets. This led to the creation of an all new, full size luxury sedan designed for export markets and was called the Lexus LS. US federal law for seatbelt and safety regulations saw the introduction of automatic seat belts which consisted of a motorized shoulder belt that was deployed in the closed position when the door was closed and the ignition on. The Cressida was the first automobile produced with the motorized shoulder belts as standard equipment on every vehicle. The belts would be installed on all Cressidas in the United States from 1981 on. After the mid-generation facelift, a mid-grade specification similar to the original one-model line was offered on New Zealand assembled models with the four-cylinder engine; a new top version had a two-litre six-cylinder engine, four-speed automatic and air conditioning, becoming the first NZ-built Toyota to have 'air' as standard. A large number of the four-cylinder cars with dealer-fitted air conditioning were sold to car hire company Hertz Rent-A-Car. Both engines were below two litres to avoid the higher sales taxes that applied on larger engines in New Zealand at the time. In 1984 for the 1985 model year, a new Cressida was introduced by Toyota. This was the MX73 (MX72 for wagon). The 5M-GE engine was mostly unchanged from the 1984 model year but gained a knock-sensor, which detected pre-ignition and adjusted timing accordingly when a lower-grade fuel was used. The 5M-E SOHC also was available in some markets. The bodystyle was all-new, larger, and more aerodynamic than previous generations. Interestingly, like its main competitor at the time, the Nissan Maxima, it was given the "compact" design, though it had grown in size. New options included were an electronic shock absorber control (TEMS), CD player, super monitor, digital gauges, standard woodgrain trim, and secondary radio controls that were placed right by the steering wheel for easier access while driving. The automatic transmission retained its Normal/Power selector as many other Toyotas would, but later in production, the Economy selection was dropped. In 1987 the automatic transmission was changed to the A340E that was also used with the 7M-GE and Lexus 1UZ-FE engine at the time. The 1988 model was not offered with a manual transmission and the wagon was discontinued in 1987. By 1988, power output was at 161 hp (120 kW). In Chile, the Cressida was imported by the army to be used for brigadiers and colonels.][ Toyota introduced the slightly larger fourth generation of the Cressida, the MX83, in 1988 for the 1989 model year — the final generation for the Cressida in North America. Standard features included a new, more powerful 3.0-liter straight six 7M-GE engine producing 190 horsepower (140 kW) at 6,000 rpm and 185 lb-ft (250 Nm) at 4,400 rpm. As with the powertrain, most other mechanicals were modified versions of those in the Supra, most notably the new double-wishbone rear suspension. Standard equipment included power windows and locks, cruise control, a tilt-telescoping steering wheel, and a four-speed automatic transmission. Options included antilock brakes, a power driver's seat, leather upholstery, power moonroof, and a CD player. All Cressidas of this generation featured motorized automatic seat belts; airbags were never offered. The Cressida was praised for its comfortable and quiet ride, graceful rear-wheel-drive handling, high gas mileage for its class (23 mpg [US] average according to a July 1989 Consumer Reports test), and stellar reliability. Downsides include a somewhat uncomfortable back seat, ride quality that deteriorated with a full load of passengers, and a trunk with only 12.5 cubic feet of space. The most substantive change was the 1991 facelift, which brought brighter alloy wheels (wearing the same 195/65-15 tires), a redesigned grille containing the new Toyota "T" logo, and simplified climate controls. In the Middle East, the Cressida had a 2.4-litre 22R engine producing 108 horsepower (81 kW) at 6,000 rpm. The other available engine was the 2.8-litre 5M, which produced 103 kW (140 PS; 138 hp) at 4,800 rpm and 226 Nm at 3,600 rpm using the leaded petrol available in the region at the time. In Japan, the Mark II, Chaser and Cresta continued beyond 1992, but the Cressida name was retired. The X chassis code for Cressidas remained under the Mark II, Chaser, and Cresta names for several years. The Chaser and Cresta went on for two more generations until 2000, when they were replaced by the short lived Toyota Verossa. The Mark II was succeeded by the Mark X in 2004, although the Mark II Blit, a wagon variant, was sold until 2007. In Australia, the Cressida was sold from April 1977 to February 1993, when it was replaced by the Vienta (and later the Avalon in the full-size bracket). The Cressida also played a part in the design of the first Lexus models, most closely resembling the LS 400. However, some of the shared concepts and similarity between the Cressida and early Lexus models in turn led to the decision to eventually discontinue the Cressida in most markets, as it would overlap with vehicles sold under the Lexus marque. The 1992 redesign of the Camry and introduction of the XLE V6 model helped cover the Cressida's market as well, despite the fact the Camry was a front-wheel-drive vehicle and the Cressida was rear-wheel-drive. The introduction of the Toyota Avalon in the American market in 1995 filled the gap left by the cancellation of the Toyota Cressida in 1992. The Avalon was a front-wheel drive full-size car, powered by a V6 engine, as the third-generation Camry remained in the mid-market but now had grown in proportions to be classified as a mid-size. The Cressida was an upper-level mid-size rear-wheel drive car with a straight-6 engine, as the mid-market second-generation Camry was still classified as a compact car in the early 1990s.

Toyota MR2
The Toyota MR2 is a two-seat, mid-engined, rear-wheel-drive sports car produced by Toyota, from 1984 until July 2007 when production stopped in Japan. There are three different generations of the MR2: 1984–1989, with angular, origami-like lines, 1990–1999, which had styling that some compared to Ferrari sports cars, and 2000–2007, which somewhat resembled the Porsche Boxster. It was designed to be small, with an economical powerplant, but sporty in style and handling. Basic design elements, such as MacPherson strut front and rear suspensions and transverse-mounted inline-four engines, are common to all three generations of MR2, though each generation differs greatly from the next in particulars. The MR2's life began in 1976 when Toyota launched a design project with the goal of producing a car which would be enjoyable to drive, yet still provide good fuel economy. Initially the purpose of the project was not to design a sports car. The actual design work began in 1979 when Akio Yoshida from Toyota's testing department started to evaluate different alternatives for engine placement and drive method. The choice was finally made to place the engine transversely in the middle of the car. The result was the first prototype in 1981, dubbed the SA-X. From its base design, the car began evolving into an actual sports car, and further prototypes were tested intensely both in Japan and in California. A significant amount of testing was performed on actual race circuits such as Willow Springs, where former Formula One driver Dan Gurney tested the car. Toyota made its SV-3 concept car public in October 1983 at the Tokyo Motor Show, gathering a huge amount of publicity both from the press and the audience. The car, scheduled to be launched in the second quarter of 1984 in the Japanese market under the name MR2 (which stands for "mid-engine, rear-wheel drive, two-seater"), was to become the first mass-produced mid-engined car to come from a Japanese manufacturer. In France the name was shortened to MR to avoid the similarity in pronunciation of MR2 with the French words est merdeux, meaning "(it) is shitty". The small and light MR2 was something no one had expected from Toyota, known for their economical and practical family cars. The two-seat MR2 was definitely not practical as a family car and nor was it intended to be, having been designed instead with style and sport as priorities. The moniker 'Mid-engined Runabout, 2 Seater' was more than a marketing tool - it was the fundamental design philosophy. The folded angular lines evoked origami paper sculpture. Other cars with a similar design concept including the Lancia Beta Montecarlo, Fiat X 1/9 and the exotic Lancia Stratos were all produced in the 70s and early 80s. The most important features of the MR2 were its light body (as low as 2,095 lb (950 kg) in Japan and 2,350 lb (1066 kg) in the US), superior handling and lightly powered, small-displacement engine. The car is often referred to as the AW11, referring to the chassis code of the most common 1.6-litre, A-engined versions. Some rumors have persisted that the MR2 was designed by Lotus. This is a reference to the Lotus M90 (a.k.a. the X100) project, but this was scrapped after a single prototype was built. This used the same engine and gearbox as the MR2. At the time, Toyota, along with the Chapman family was a major share holder in Lotus, but General Motors later acquired majority control. However, the MR2's suspension and handling were designed by Toyota with the help of Lotus engineer Roger Becker. Toyota's cooperation with Lotus during the prototype phase can be seen in the AW11, and it owes much to Lotus's legendary sports cars of the 1960s and 1970s. As a power plant, Toyota chose to use the naturally aspirated 4A-GE 1,587 cc straight-4 engine, a dual overhead-cam, four-valve-per-cylinder motor. This engine was also equipped with DENSO electronic port fuel injection and a variable intake geometry ("T-VIS"), giving the engine a maximum power output of 112 hp (84 kW) in the US, 128 hp (95 kW) in the UK, 116 or 124 PS (85 or 91 kW; 114 or 122 hp) in Europe (with or without catalytic converter), 118 hp (88 kW) in Australia and 130 PS (96 kW; 128 hp) in Japan. Japanese models were later downrated to 120 PS (88 kW; 118 hp). The engine had already been introduced earlier on the AE86 Corolla, gathering a lot of positive publicity. A five-speed manual transmission was standard and a four-speed automatic was optional. Road tests delivered 0-60 mph times in the mid- to high-8 second range, and 1/4 mile times in the mid- to high-16 second range, significantly faster than the four-cylinder Pontiac Fiero or Fiat X1/9. In the home market, the AW10 base model was offered, which used the more economical 1452 cc 3A-U engine rated at 61 kilowatts (82 hp), but it attracted few buyers. In 1987 (1988 for the US market), Toyota introduced a supercharged engine for the MR2. Based on the same block and head, the 4A-GZE was equipped with a small Roots-type supercharger and a Denso intercooler. T-VIS was eliminated and the compression ratio was lowered to 8:1. It produced 145 horsepower (108 kW) and 140 pound-feet (190 N·m) and accelerated the small car from 0 to 100 km/h (0 to 62 mph) in 6.5 to 7.0s. The supercharger was belt-driven but actuated by an electromagnetic clutch, so that it would not be driven except when needed, increasing fuel economy. Curb weight increased to as much as 2,494 pounds (1,131 kg) for supercharged models, due to the weight of the supercharger equipment and a new, stronger transmission. A fuel selector switch was also added in some markets, to allow the car to run on regular unleaded if required to. In addition to the new engine, the MR2 SC was also equipped with stiffer springs, and received special "tear-drop" aluminium wheels. The engine cover had two raised vents (only one of which was functional) that visually distinguished it from the normally aspirated models. It was also labeled "Supercharged" on the rear trunk and body mouldings behind both doors. This model was never offered in European or Australian markets, although some cars were privately imported. 1986 1987 1988 1989 The press received the AW11 with open arms and praised its innovation, great feeling, and responsive engine. American car magazines Road & Track and Car and Driver both chose the MR2 on their lists of ten best cars which included some tough competition, such as the Ferrari Testarossa. The Australian Wheels magazine chose the 1988 MR2 as its favourite sports car. The MR2 was Motor Trend's Import Car of the Year for 1985. (It is worth noting that the MR2 was not eligible for the Car of the Year award, because only vehicles produced in the US were eligible until 1999. The 1985 winner, the Volkswagen GTI, was produced in Westmoreland, Pennsylvania.) The MR2 was also on Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1986 and 1987. In 2004, Sports Car International ranked the MR2 number eight on the list of Top Sports Cars of the 1980s. In January 1989 Toyota produced a final run of fully optioned "Super Edition" MR2s. The 'Super Edition' included all the extras of the G-Limited models along with extra features such as a MOMO-commissioned steering wheel and gear knob, Recaro "Milano" seats with matching door panels, and "SUPER EDITION" decals on the rear visor and side stripes). Super Edition cars were sold in special Midnight Blue or white/gold two-tone paint; 270 were produced in each color. The MR2 Mk I still enjoys a fan base to this day. Its twin cam 1600 cc engine has potential, but its power has since been surpassed. Many enthusiasts have decided to turbocharge the engine as an upgrade, while others have decided to bypass this route and simply swap the engine out entirely. Popular swaps include both the fourth-generation 4A-GE twin cam 20-valve silver and black tops, the MR2 Mk II's 3S-GTE and the BEAMS 3S-GE engines, and the supercharged 4A-GZE 16-valve engines typically found in supercharged MR2's. Others even go as far as to change out the 4-cylinder engine for a 6- or 8-cylinder engine, but this requires extensive modifications. While Toyota's front-engine, rear-drive Celica rally cars proved dominant in the African Group B rallies of the 1980s, they were at a disadvantage on the twistier European stages. Thus, in 1985 Toyota Team Europe started a rally project codenamed "222D" based on the MR2, for competition in Group S and potentially Group B as well. Though somewhat similar on the outside, it's clear that it shared very little with the production car. Little is known about this project because it never competed before Group B was canceled in 1986. During a surprise appearance at the 2006 Goodwood Festival of Speed, Toyota drove and displayed a black 222D. The race-ready car weighed around 750 kilograms (1,700 lb) and its transverse-mounted, four-cylinder, turbocharged engine (what appears to be a 503E race engine, though other prototypes may have used the 4T-GTE) was reported to produce as much as 750 horsepower (560 kW). A V6-powered prototype was also rumored to exist, but has never been seen in public. The MR2 went through a complete redesign in 1989 (though North America did not receive them until late 1990 as 1991 models). The new car was larger and weighed 350 to 400 pounds (160 to 180 kg) more than its predecessor. Because of the resemblance to the Ferrari 348 and the Ferrari F355, the new MR2 was quite striking, and it is sometimes referred to as a "poor man's Ferrari." There are many subtle visual differences between the normally aspirated and turbocharged models: including the "turbo" emblem (US) on the rear trunk, a fiberglass engine lid with raised vents, fog lights (though some Japanese and European NA models came with fog lights), and an added interior center storage compartment located between the two seats. All SW20 MR2s came with a staggered wheel setup, with wider wheels and tires in the rear than in the front. Mechanical differences on the Turbo models include, but are not limited to: The US market MR2 Turbo model was able to accelerate from 0-60 in 6.1 seconds and finish the 1/4 mile in 14.7 seconds. The second-generation MR2 underwent a variety of changes during its 10 years of production, grouped in four different periods: Jan-1992 (as the 1993 model year) to Oct-1993: Nov-1993 and later (as 1994 & 1995 model year): 1996: 1998: Changes to the suspension geometry, tire sizes and power steering in Jan of 1992 (as the 93 model year) were made in response to journalist reports that the MR2 was prone to "snap-oversteer". As a counterpoint to the snap-oversteer phenomenon of the MR2, other journalists point out that most mid-engine and rear engine sports and super cars exhibit similar behaviour, and that a change to the driver's response to oversteer is really the solution. In any car, braking shifts the weight forward, and acceleration to the rear. When drivers enter a corner with too much speed, and lift the throttle mid-corner, the weight transfers forward causing the rear tires to lose traction (called lift-off oversteer), which can result in a spin. When improper steering inputs were made attempting to correct this non-power-on oversteer, the rear of the MR2 would swing one way, then wildly (and quickly) the other—thus the term "snap" oversteer. Toyota elected to change the MR2 suspension and tires to reduce the likelihood that this would occur, though many drivers would lament the change and claim that it "neutered" the sharp edge the MR2 was known for. Toyota claimed that the changes were made "for drivers whose reflexes were not those of Formula One drivers." In 1998, Toyota Racing Development offered an official kit body conversion and tuning program for MR2 owners to transform their existing SW20 MR2 into a wide-body TRD2000GT replica car. This was to pay homage to the TRD2000GT wins in the GT-C Japanese racing series, since the TRD2000GT racing series cars were based on the SW20 floor pan. The TRD2000GT body kit widened the MR2 by a total of 100 mm (4 in). Prior to MR2s being fitted with the TRD2000GT body kit, TRD had its customers select which additional engine, suspension, wheel, and interior upgrades they wanted. For these reason, no two TRD2000GT MR2s are alike. It is rumored that at least one was built to produce up to 500bhp whereas some others had few modifications to their engines. Surprisingly, not all TRD2000GT MR2s were turbocharged. For example, TRD2000GT #001 came with a naturally aspirated 2.2L engine. In order to ensure exclusivity, a high price tag was charged and total of just 35 factory car conversions were completed by Toyota Technocraft Ltd. Each official Technocraft-converted car was made using lightweight fiberglass components (front fenders, trunk lid extension, rear quarter panels, gas door, front and rear bumpers, 3-piece wing) and re-classified as completely new cars (with their own specially numbered TRD VIN plate riveted to the body to indicate their authenticity and rarity). The Toyota Technocraft Ltd. TRD2000GT had a 60 mm (2.4 in) wider front and rear track (due to the addition of wider wheels and tires). Virtually every car converted also had other TRD parts fitted too, including extensive changes to both the suspension and engine. Most cars left the factory making more power due to TRD bolt-ons, some cars even left the factory boasting up to 500 metric horsepower (370 kW; 490 hp) and less than 1100 kg (2425 lb) for a very impressive power-to-weight ratio. While TRD Japan only offered a small number of kits with all body parts required for third-party conversion, Toyota Technocraft Ltd. offered complete car conversions. Apart from the cars listed on the TRD2000GT register it is unknown how many original Toyota Technocraft Ltd. cars still exist today, but it is rumored that approximately 10 conversion kits were imported from TRD Japan into the US for conversions. In many respects, the extended body can be compared to that of a Porsche Turbo wide body. The car's width is extended and body dimensions dramatically changing the car's overall visuals. Very little is known about these cars outside of Japan. Between 1996 and 1999, Toyota TechnoCraft (TTC) produced 91 MKII SW20 MR2 Spiders. These cars featured a retractable, cloth softtop roof, wingless trunk lid, and an engine lid that was unique to the SW20 spider. Most of these cars were automatics and nearly all of them sported a naturally aspirated engine. Interestingly, Toyota decided against putting its name or logo on these cars as a result of its desire to distance itself from cars that featured leaky roofs. Most of the Spiders came in Lucerne Silver with a blue side moulding and featured black and blue accented cloth seats.

The Sard MC8-R was a modified and lengthened version of the SW20 built for GT racing by Toyota's works team SARD (Sigma Advanced Research Development). The MC8-R housed a twin-turbo version of the 4.0-liter Toyota 1UZ-FE V8 producing 600 bhp (450 kW). Eligible for the GT1 category, the MC8-R lacked pace against the new generation sports cars and homologation specials such as Porsche 911 GT1, but did compete alongside a similarly modified Toyota Supra. One MC8 road car was built in order to meet homologation requirements, but its current whereabouts are unknown. 1995 and 1996 1997 1998 1999 The third generation MR2 had three different names, depending on country; Toyota MR-S in Japan, Toyota MR2 Spyder in the US, and the Toyota MR2 Roadster in Europe. With the previous MR2 having been in the market for almost ten years, the newest MR2 took a drastically different approach than the outgoing model. The new MR2 was a part of Toyota Project Genesis, a plan to attract buyers from the younger age bracket in an effort to increase sales in the US. The most obvious change was the switch from a hardtop/open-roof option to a true convertible soft top, giving the car the 'Spyder' designation. Many claim that this car was inspired by Porsche Boxster which was released in 1996, due to its similar appearance. However, the first prototype of MR-S appeared in 1997 at the Tokyo Motor Show, which had slightly more angled and rigid appearance than the current production model, which included additional curves for a more aerodynamic and appealing look. The MR2 Spyder chief engineer Harunori Shiratori said, "First, we wanted true driver enjoyment, blending good movement, low inertia and light weight. Then, a long wheelbase to achieve high stability and fresh new styling; a mid-engine design to create excellent handling and steering without the weight of the engine up front; a body structure as simple as possible to allow for easy customizing, and low cost to the consumer." The only engine available for the ZZW30 was the all-aluminium 1ZZ-FED, a 1794 cc straight-4. Like its predecessors, the engine used dual overhead camshafts and 16 valves. The intake camshaft timing was adjustable via the VVT-i system, which was introduced earlier on the 1998 MR2 in some markets. Unlike its predecessors, however, the engine was placed onto the car the other way round, with the exhaust manifold towards the rear of the car instead of towards the front. The 138 hp (104 kW) maximum power was quite a drop from the previous generation, but thanks to the lightness of the car it could still move quite quickly, accelerating from 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) in 6.8 to 8.7 s depending on the transmission option, the Sequential Manual being unable to launch and shift as quickly as the clutch operated manual. Curb weight was 2,195 pounds (996 kg) for manual transmission models. In addition to the 5-speed manual transmission, a 6-speed manual or 6-speed Sequential Manual Transmission (SMT) was also available starting in 2002. SMT is standard feature in Australian market; however, air conditioning was optional. After 2003, a 6-speed SMT was an option. The SMT had no conventional H-pattern shift lever or clutch pedal. The driver could shift gears by tapping the shift lever forward or backward or by pressing steering-wheel mounted buttons. Clutch engagement is automatic, and the car will automatically shift to neutral when stopping. Cruise control was never offered with the manual transmission, but was standard for SMT cars. The MR2 Spyder was also distinguished from most of its competition (including the Honda S2000, Mazda MX-5, and Porsche Boxster) by a standard-equipment heated glass rear window. At the time of its debut, most convertibles were still using a plastic rear window. A hard top was also available from Toyota in Japan and Europe, though it was expensive. The MR-S was originally introduced in October 1999 to the Japanese consumer market in three distinct trim models - the "B", the "Standard", and the "S". The "S" trim level included power windows, locks, mirrors, AM/FM/CD radio, cloth seats, tilt steering wheel, and alloy wheels. In March 2000, the car was introduced into the US and Europe as a "monospec" level, which included the same features as Japan's "S" trim level. 2002 2003 2004 2005 2007 The feedback for the new model was somewhat mixed - some liked its all new design concept, while the fans of the SW20 would've liked it to continue along the path of the previous model. All agreed, however, that the ZZW30 had nearly perfect handling. The ZZW30 is considered to be the best-handling MR2 in both overall limit and controllability. For example, Tiff Needell, a very experienced race driver and the former host of the BBC TV show Top Gear, praised the handling of the ZZW30. Although some complained of the relative lack of power, many owners have opted to switch out the 1ZZ-FE engine in exchange for the 180 PS (130 kW) 2ZZ-GE found in the Celica and Lotus Elise. Between 2000 to 2008, several teams campaigned the MR-S in Super GT (known as JGTC prior to 2004 season). In July 2004, Toyota announced that sales of the MR2 (as well as the Celica) would be discontinued in the US at the end of the 2005 model year because of increasing competition and lack of sales. The ZZW30 sold 7,233 units in its debut year, falling to just 901 for the 2005 model, for a total of 27,941 through its six years of production in the US. The 2005 model year was the last for the MR2 in the US. While the MR2 Spyder was not sold after 2005 in the US, it was offered in Japan, Mexico, and Europe until 2007. Production of the car ceased permanently in July 2007. As a farewell to the MR2, Toyota produced 1000 limited-production V-Edition cars for Japan and the UK. They are distinguished by different color wheels, titanium interior accents, minor body changes, a helical limited slip differential, and different steering wheel trim. Also for model year 2007, the United Kingdom received 300 models in a special numbered TF300 series. A special 182 bhp (136 kW) turbocharged variant called the TTE Turbo (TTE standing for Toyota Team Europe) was available as a dealer-installed package. This package was also available for fitting to customer MR2s. The Toyota VM180 Zagato was designed by Zagato, based on the MR-S, and built at Toyota Modelista International for sale in Japan only through the Toyota Vista dealer network. It was first shown on 10 January 2001 in Tokyo and then at the February 2001 Geneva Motor Show. The body panels are attached to the original MR-S chassis, as can be seen by the recess around the door handles. The stock engine was tuned to produce 155 bhp (116 kW).

Mazda RX-7
The Mazda RX-7 is a sports car produced by the Japanese automaker Mazda from 1978 to 2002. The original RX-7 featured a 1146 cc twin-rotor Wankel rotary engine and a front-midship, rear-wheel drive layout. The RX-7 replaced the RX-3 (both were sold in Japan as the Savanna) and later replaced all other Mazda rotary-engine cars except the Cosmo. The original RX-7 was a sports car with pop-up headlamps. The compact and lightweight Wankel engine (rotary engine) is situated slightly behind the front axle, a configuration marketed by Mazda as "front mid-engine". It was offered as a two-seat coupé, with optional "occasional" rear seats in Japan, Australia, the United States, and other parts of the world. These rear seats were initially marketed as a dealer-installed option for the North American markets. The RX-7 made Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list five times. 811,634 RX-7s were produced. Series 1 (1978–1980) is commonly referred to as the "SA22C" from the first alphanumerics of the vehicle identification number. This series of RX-7 had exposed steel bumpers and a high-mounted indentation-located license plate, called by Werner Buhrer of Road & Track magazine a "Baroque depression." In Japan it was introduced in March 1978, replacing the Savanna RX-3. The lead designer at Mazda was Matasaburo Maeda, whose son Ikuo would go on to design the Mazda2 and Mazda RX-8. In May 1980, Mazda released 2,500 special North American models known as the LS (Leather Sport). This package was essentially an uprated GS model with added LS badges on each B-pillar, special striping, and LS-only gold anodized wheels (with polished outer face and wheel rim). All LS editions came equipped with special LS-only full brown leather upholstery, leather wrapped steering wheel, leather wrapped shift knob, removable sunroof, LS-specific four-speaker AM/FM stereo radio with power antenna (though listed as a six speaker stereo, as the two rear dual voice coil speakers were counted as four speakers in total), remote power door side mirrors, and other standard GS equipment. Two primary options were also available; a three-speed JATCO 3N71B automatic transmission and air conditioning. Other GS options such as cassette tape deck, splash guards, padded center console arm rest and others could be added by the dealer. The LS model was only ever available in three different exterior colors: Aurora White (1,000 made), Brilliant Black (1,000 made) and Solar Gold (500 made). Production estimates in parenthesis are widely accepted estimations per color, though no official production records are known to exist or to have been released, aside from the total combined production figure of 2,500 units. The Series 2 (1981–1983) had integrated plastic-covered bumpers, wide black rubber body side moldings, wraparound taillights and updated engine control components. The GSL package provided optional four-wheel disc brakes, front ventilated (Australian model) and clutch-type rear limited slip differential (LSD). Known as the "FB" in North America after the US Department of Transportation mandated 17 digit Vehicle Identification Number changeover. For various other markets worldwide, the 1981–1985 RX-7 retained the 'SA22C' VIN prefix. In the UK, the 1978–1980 series 1 cars carried the SA code on the vehicle VIN but all later cars (1981–1983 series 3 & 1984–1985 series 3) carried the FB code and these first generation RX7's are known as the "FB". The license-plate surround looks much like Buhrer's "Styling Impressions."][ In Europe, the FB was mainly noticed for having received a power increase from the 105 PS (77 kW) of the SA22; the 1981 RX-7 now had 115 PS (85 kW) on tap. European market cars also received four-wheel disc brakes as standard. The Series 3 (1984–1985) featured an updated lower front fascia. North American models received a different instrument cluster (the NA S3 RX-7 is the only rotary-engined car to not have a centrally mounted tachometer). GSL package was continued into this series, but Mazda introduced the GSL-SE sub-model. The GSL-SE had a fuel-injected 1.3 L 13B RE-EGI engine producing 135 hp (101 kW) and 135 lb·ft (183 N·m). GSL-SEs had much the same options as the GSL (clutch-type rear LSD and rear disc brakes), but the brake rotors were larger, allowing Mazda to use the more common lug nuts (versus bolts), and a new bolt pattern of 4x114.3 (4x4.5"). Also, they had upgraded suspension with stiffer springs and shocks. The external oil cooler was reintroduced, after being dropped in the 1983 model-year for the controversial "beehive" water-oil heat exchanger. The 1984 RX-7 GSL has an estimated 29 highway miles per gallon (8.11 litres per 100 km) /19 estimated city miles per gallon (12.37 l/100 km). According to Mazda, its rotary engine, licensed by NSU-Wankel allowed the RX-7 GSL to accelerate from 0 to 50 (80 km/h) in 6.3 seconds. Kelley Blue Book, in its January–February 1984 issue, noted that a 1981 RX-7 GSL retained 93.4% of its original sticker price. In 1985 Mazda released the RX7 Finale in Australia. This was the last of the series and brought out in limited numbers. The Finale featured power options and a brass plaque mentioning the number the car was as well as "Last of a legend" on the plaque. The finale had special stickers and a blacked out section between the window & rear hatch. The handling and acceleration of the car were noted to be of a high caliber for its day. This generation RX-7 had "live axle" 4-link rear suspension with Watt's linkage, a 50/50 weight ratio, and weighed under 2,500 lb (1,100 kg). It was the lightest generation of RX-7 ever produced. 12A-powered models accelerated from 0–60 mph in 9.2 s, and turned 0.779 g (7.64 m/s²) laterally on a skidpad. The 12A engine produced 100 hp (75 kW) at 6,000 rpm, allowing the car to reach speeds of over 120 miles per hour (190 km/h). Because of the smoothness inherent in the Wankel rotary engine, little vibration or harshness was experienced at high engine speeds, so a buzzer was fitted to the tachometer to warn the driver when the 7,000 rpm redline was approaching. The 12A engine has a long thin shaped combustion chamber, having a large surface area in relation to its volume. Therefore, combustion is cool, giving few oxides of nitrogen. However, the combustion is also incomplete, so there are large amounts of partly burned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. The exhaust is hot enough for combustion of these to continue into the exhaust. An engine driven pump supplies air into the exhaust to complete the burn of these chemicals. This is done in the "thermal reactor" chamber where the exhaust manifold would normally be on a conventional engine. Under certain conditions the pump injects air into the thermal reactor and at other times air is pumped through injectors into the exhaust ports. This fresh air is needed for more efficient and cleaner burning of the air/fuel mixture. Options and models varied from country to country. The gauge layout and interior styling in the Series 3 was only changed for North American versions. Additionally, North America was the only market to have offered the first generation RX-7 with the fuel-injected 13B, model GSL-SE. Sales of the first generation RX-7 were strong, with a total of 474,565 first generation cars produced; 377,878 (nearly eighty percent) were sold in the United States alone. In 2004, Sports Car International named this car seventh on their list of Top Sports Cars of the 1970s. In 1983, the RX-7 would appear on Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for the first time in 20 years. Following the introduction of the first turbocharged rotary engine in the Luce/Cosmo, a similar, also fuel injected and non-intercooled 12A turbo engine was made available for the top-end model of the series 3 in Japan. It was introduced in September 1983. Power is 165 PS (121 kW) JIS at 6,500 rpm. While the peak power figures were only somewhat higher than those of the engine used in the Luce/Cosmo, the new "Impact Turbo" was developed specifically to deal with the different exhaust gas characteristics of a rotary engine. Both rotor vanes of the turbine were remodelled and made smaller, and the turbine had a twenty percent higher speed than a turbo intended for a conventional engine. The Savanna Turbo was short-lived, as the next generation RX-7 was just around the corner. 1.3L 146 hp (109 kW) S4 Naturally aspirated 13B 1.3L 182 hp (136 kW) S4 Turbocharged 13B 1.3L 160 hp (119 kW) S5 Naturally aspirated 13B The Series 4 (1986–1988) was available with a naturally aspirated, fuel-injected 13B-VDEI producing 146 hp (108 kW). An optional turbocharged model, (1987–1988) known as the Turbo II in the American market, had 182 hp / 185 ps (135 kW). The Series 5 (1989–1992) featured updated styling and better engine management, as well as lighter rotors and a higher compression ratio, 9.7:1 for the naturally aspirated model, and 9.0:1 for the turbo model. The naturally aspirated Series 5 FC made 160 hp (119 kW), while the Series 5 Turbo made 200 hp / 205 ps (147 kW). The second generation RX-7 ("FC", VIN begins JM1FC3 or JMZFC1), still known as the Savanna RX-7 in Japan, featured a complete restyling reminiscent of the Porsche 944 or Porsche 924. Mazda's stylists, led by Chief Project Engineer Akio Uchiyama, focused on the Porsche 944 for their inspiration in designing the FC because the new car was being styled primarily for the American market, where the majority of first generation RX-7's had been sold. This strategy was chosen after Uchiyama and others on the design team spent time in the United States studying owners of earlier RX-7's and other sports cars popular in the American market. The Porsche 944 was selling particularly well at the time and provided clues as to what sports-car enthusiasts might find compelling in future RX-7 styling and equipment. While the SA22/FB was a purer sports car, the FC tended toward the softer sport-tourer trends of its day. Handling was much improved, with less of the oversteer tendencies of the FB. The rear end design was vastly improved from the FB's live rear axle to a more modern, Independent Rear Suspension (rear axle). Steering was more precise, with rack and pinion steering replacing the old recirculating ball steering of the FB. Disc brakes also became standard, with some models (S4: Sport, GXL, GTU, Turbo II, Convertible; S5: GXL, GTUs, Turbo, Convertible) offering four-piston front brakes. The rear seats were optional in some models of the FC RX-7, but are not commonly found in the American Market. Mazda also introduced Dynamic Tracking Suspension System (DTSS) in the 2nd generation RX-7. The revised independent rear suspension incorporated special toe control hubs which were capable of introducing a limited degree of passive rear steering under cornering loads. The DTSS worked by allowing a slight amount of toe-out under normal driving conditions but induced slight toe-in under heavier cornering loads at around 0.5 G's or more; toe-out in the rear allows for a more responsive rotation of the rear, but toe-in allowed for a more stable rear under heavier cornering. Mazda also introduced Auto Adjusting Suspension (AAS) in the 2nd generation RX-7. The system changed damping characteristics according to the road and driving conditions. The system compensated for camber changes and provided anti-dive and anti-squat effects. The Turbo 2 uses a turbo charger with a twin scroll design. The smaller primary chamber is engineered to cancel the turbo lag at low engine speeds. At higher revolutions the secondary chamber is opened, pumping out 33% more power than the naturally aspirated counterpart. The Turbo 2 also has an air-to-air intercooler which has a dedicated intake on the hood. The intake is slightly offset toward the left side of the hood. Though about 800 lb (363 kg) heavier and more isolated than its predecessor, the FC continued to win accolades from the press. The FC RX-7 was Motor Trend's Import Car of the Year for 1986, and the Turbo II was on Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for a second time in 1987. In the Japanese market, only the turbo engine was available; the naturally aspirated version was allowed only as an export. This can be attributed to insurance companies penalizing turbo cars (thus restricting potential sales). This emphasis on containing horsepower and placating insurance companies to make RX-7's more affordable seems ironic in retrospect. Shortly after the discontinuance of the second generation RX-7's in 1992, an outright horsepower "arms race" broke out between sports car manufacturers, with higher and higher levels of power required to meet buyer demands. This rising horsepower phenomena arose from the US CAFE standards remaining stable while engine technologies marched forward rapidly. Mazda sold 86,000 RX-7's in the US alone in 1986, its first model year, with sales peaking in 1988. Australian Motors Mazda released a limited run of 250 'Sports' model Series 4 RX-7's; each with no power steering, power windows or rear wiper as an attempt to reduce the weight of the car. In Japan, there was a special limited release of the FC called Infini with only 600 made for each year. Some special noted features for all Infini series are: infini logo on the back, upgraded suspension, upgraded ECU, higher horsepower, lightened weight, 15-inch BBS aluminum alloy wheels, Infini logo steering wheel, aero bumper kits, bronze colored window glass, floor bar on the passenger side, aluminum bonnet with scoop, flare and holder. The car was thought as the pinnacle of the RX-7 series (until the FD came out). The Infini IV came with other special items such as black bucket seats, 16-inch BBS wheels, Knee pads, and all the other items mentioned before. There are differing years for the Infini, which noted the series. Series I was introduced in 1987, Series II was introduced in 1988, Series III was introduced in 1990, and Series IV was introduced in 1991. Series I and II came in White or Black, Series III came in Forest Green only, and Series IV came in Forest Green or Noble Green. There are only minor differences between the series, the biggest change which was from the Series II being an S4 (1986–1988) and the Series III and IV being an S5 (1989–1991). Mazda introduced a convertible version of the RX-7 in 1988 with a normally aspirated engine — introduced to the US market with ads featuring Hollywood actor James Garner, at the time featured in many of Mazda's television advertisements. The convertible featured a removable rigid section over the passengers and a folding textile rear section with heatable rear glass window. Power operated, lowering the top required unlatching two header catches, power lowering the top, exiting the car (or reaching over to the right side latch), and folding down the rigid section manually. Mazda introduced with the convertible the first integral windblocker, a rigid panel that folded up from behind the passenger seats to block unwanted drafts from reaching the passengers — thereby extending the driving season for the car in open mode. The convertible also featured optional headrest mounted audio speakers and a folding leather snap-fastened tonneau cover. The convertible assembly was precisely engineered and manufactured, and dropped into the ready body assembly as a complete unit — a first in convertible production. Several leading car magazines at the time also selected the convertible as one of the best rag-tops available on the market (see Automobile Magazine/January 1988, Performance Car Magazine/January 1989). Mazda exported approximately five thousand convertibles to the United States in 1988 and fewer in each of the next three model years, although it is difficult to confirm these figures, as Mazda USA did not keep RX-7 import records by model type. Production ceasing in 1991 after Mazda marketed a limited run of 500 example for 1992 for the domestic market only. In Japan, the United Kingdom, and other regions outside the US, a turbocharged version of the convertible was available. Mazda introduced the 10th Anniversary RX-7 in 1988 as a limited production run based on the RX-7 Turbo II. Production was limited to 1,500 models. The 10th Anniversary RX-7 features a Crystal White (paint code UC) monochromatic paint scheme with matching white body side mouldings, taillight housings, mirrors and 16-inch alloy 7-spoke wheels. There were two "series" of 10th Anniversary models, with essentially a VIN-split running production change between the two. The most notable difference between the series can be found on the exterior- the earlier "Series I" cars had a black "Mazda" logo decal on the front bumper cover, whereas most if not all "Series II" cars did not have the decal. Series II cars also received the lower seat cushion height/tilt feature that Series I cars lacked. Another distinctive exterior feature is the bright gold rotor-shaped 10th Anniversary Edition badge on the front fenders (yellow-gold on the Series II cars). A distinctive 10th Anniversary package feature is the all black leather interior (code D7), which included not just the seats, but the door panel inserts as well and a leather-wrapped MOMO steering wheel (with 10th Anniversary Edition embossed horn button) and MOMO leather shift knob with integrated boot. All exterior glass is bronze tinted (specific in North America to only the 10th Anniversary), and the windshield was equipped with the embedded secondary antenna also found on some other select models with the upgraded stereo packages. Other 10th Anniversary Edition specific items were headlight washers (the only RX-7 in the US market that got this feature), glass breakage detectors added to the factory alarm system, 10th Anniversary Edition logoed floormats, 10th Anniversary Edition embroidered front hood protector and accompanying front end mask (or "bra"), and an aluminum under pan. In 1989, with the introduction of a face-lifted FC RX-7, and to commemorate the RX-7's IMSA domination, Mazda introduced a limited model labeled the GTUs. Starting with the lightweight base model GTU, which came with manual windows, no rear wiper, no sunroof, and A/C was dealer optioned, the GTUs added items found on the Turbo model such as four piston front brakes, rear ventilated brake rotors, vehicle speed sensing power steering, 1 piece front chin spoiler, cloth covered Turbo model seats, leather wrapped steering wheel, 16 inch wheels, 205/55VR tires, and a GTUs only 4.300 Viscous-type limited slip differential (all other FC LSD's where 4.100). This allowed quicker acceleration from the non-turbo powered 13B. Although the GTU and GTUs did not come with a sunroof, many dealers offered an aftermarket glass sunroof to help with sales. Mazda built 1100 GTUs's in 1989, with the last 100 re-stamped as 1990 models. 1.3L 255 PS (188 kW; 252 hp) 13B-REW
1.3L 265 PS (195 kW; 261 hp) 13B-REW
The third generation of the RX-7, FD (with FD3S for the JDM and JM1FD for the USA VIN), featured an updated body design. The 13B-REW was the first-ever mass-produced sequential twin-turbocharger system to export from Japan, boosting power to 255 PS (188 kW; 252 hp) in 1993 and finally 280 PS (206 kW; 276 hp) by the time production ended in Japan in 2002. The FD RX-7 was Motor Trend's Import Car of the Year. When Playboy first reviewed the FD RX-7 in 1993, they tested it in the same issue as the [then] new Dodge Viper. In that issue, Playboy declared the RX-7 to be the better of the two cars. It went on to win Playboy's Car of the Year for 1993. The FD RX-7 also made Car and Driver's Ten Best list for 1993 through 1995, for every year in which it was sold state-side. June, 2007 Road & Track proclaimed "The ace in Mazda's sleeve is the RX-7, a car once touted as the purest, most exhilarating sports car in the world."][ The sequential twin turbocharged system was a very complex piece of engineering, developed with the aid of Hitachi and previously used on the domestic Cosmo series (JC Cosmo=90–95). The system was composed of two small turbochargers, one to provide boost at low RPM. The 2nd unit was on standby until the upper half of the rpm range during full throttle acceleration. The first turbocharger provided 10 psi (0.7 bar) of boost from 1800 rpm, and the 2nd turbocharger was activated at 4000 rpm and also provided 10 psi (0.7 bar). The changeover process occurred at 4500 rpm, 8 psi (0.6 bar), was smooth, and provided linear acceleration and a wide torque curve throughout the entire rev range. Handling in the FD was regarded as world-class, and it is still regarded as being one of the finest handling and the best balanced cars of all time.][ The continued use of the front-midship engine and drivetrain layout, combined with an 50:50 front-rear weight distribution ratio and low center of gravity made the FD a very competent car at the limits. Australia had a special high-performance version of the RX-7 in 1995, dubbed the RX-7 SP. This model was developed as a homologated road-going version of the factory race cars used in the 12hr endurance races held at Bathurst, New South Wales, beginning in 1991 for the 1995 event held at Eastern Creek, Sydney, New South Wales. An initial run of 25 were made, and later an extra 10 were built by Mazda due to demand. The RX-7 SP produced 204 kW (274 hp) and 357 N·m (263 lb·ft) of torque, compared to the 176 kW (236 hp) and 294 N·m (217 lb·ft) of the standard version. Other changes included a race developed carbon fibre nose cone and rear spoiler, a carbon fibre 120 L fuel tank (as opposed to the 76 L tank in the standard car), a 4.3:1-ratio rear differential, 17-inch wheels, larger brake rotors and calipers. An improved intercooler, exhaust, and modified ECU were also included. Weight was reduced significantly with the aid of further carbon fibre usage including lightweight vented bonnet and Recaro seats to reduce weight to just 1050 kg (from 1150 kg). It was a serious road going race car that matched their rival Porsche 911 RS CS for the final year Mazda officially entered. The formula paid off when the RX-7 SP won the title, giving Mazda the winning 12hr trophy for a fourth straight year. The winning car also gained a podium finish at the international tarmac rally Targa Tasmania months later. A later special version, the Bathurst R, was released in 2001 to commemorate this, in Japan only. In the United Kingdom, for 1992, customers were offered only one version of the FD which was based on a combination of the US touring and the base model. For the following year, in a bid to speed up sales, Mazda reduced the price of the RX-7 to £25,000, down from £32,000 and refunded the difference to those who bought the car before that was announced. The FD continued to be imported to the UK until 1996. In 1998, for a car that had suffered from slow sales when it was officially sold, with a surge of interest and the benefit of a newly introduced SVA scheme, the FD would become so popular that there were more parallel and grey imported models brought into the country than Mazda UK had ever imported. *Australia only, 1995 build - There are three kinds of "Spirit R": the "Type A", "Type B", and "Type C". The "Type A" is a two-seater with a 5-speed manual transmission. It features lightweight red trim Recaro front seats as seen in the earlier RZ models. The "Type B" has a 2+2 seat configuration and also sports a 5-speed manual transmission. The "Type C" is also a 2+2, but has a 4-speed automatic transmission. Of the 1500 Spirit R's made, over 1000 were Type A's. An exclusive Spirit R paint color, Titanium Grey, adorned over 700 of the 1500 cars sold. Racing versions of the first-generation RX-7 were entered at the prestigious 24 hours of Le Mans endurance race. The first outing for the car, equipped with a 13B engine, failed by less than one second to qualify in 1979. The next year, a 12A-equipped RX-7 not only qualified, it placed 21st overall. That same car did not finish in 1981, along with two more 13B cars. Those two cars were back for 1982, with one 14th place finish and another DNF. The RX-7 Le Mans effort was replaced by the 717C prototype for 1983. In 1991, Mazda made racing history becoming the first Japanese automobile manufacturer to win the 24 hours of Le Mans. The car was a 4-rotor prototype, the 787B. To this day, Mazda is still the only Japanese manufacturer to have ever won the prestigious 24 hour Le Mans race outright. Mazda is also the only manufacturer to win the 24 hours of Le Mans race using something other than a reciprocating piston engine. Mazda began racing RX-7s in the IMSA GTU series in 1979. In its first year, RX-7s placed first and second at the 24 Hours of Daytona, and claimed the GTU series championship. The car continued winning, claiming the GTU championship seven years in a row. The RX-7 took the GTO championship ten years in a row from 1982. The RX-7 has won more IMSA races than any other car model. In the USA SCCA competition RX-7s were raced with great success by Don Kearney in the NE Division and John Finger in the SE Division. Pettit Racing won the GT2 Road Racing Championship in 1998. The car was a 93 Mazda RX-7 street car with only bolt-on accessories. At season end Pettit had 140 points—63 points more than the 2nd place team. This same car finished the Daytona Rolex 24-hour race 4 times. The RX-7 also fared well at the Spa 24 Hours race. Three Savanna/RX-7s were entered in 1981 by Tom Walkinshaw Racing. After hours of battling with several BMW 530i and Ford Capri, the RX-7 driven by Pierre Dieudonné and Tom Walkinshaw won the event. Mazda had turned the tables on BMW, who had beaten Mazda's Familia Rotary to the podium eleven years earlier at the same event. TWR's prepared RX-7s also won the British Touring Car Championship in 1980 and 1981, driven by Win Percy. Canadian/Australian touring car driver Allan Moffat was instrumental in bringing Mazda into the Australian touring car scene. Over a four year span beginning in 1981, Moffat took the Mazda RX-7 to victory in the 1983 Australian Touring Car Championship, as well as a trio of Bathurst 1000 podiums, in 1981 (3rd with Derek Bell), 1983 (second with Yoshimi Katayama) and 1984 (third with former motorcycle champion Gregg Hansford). Australia's adoption of international Group A regulations, combined with Mazda's reluctance to homologate a Group A RX-7, ended Mazda's active participation in the touring car series at the end of the 1984 season. The RX-7 even made an appearance in the World Rally Championship. The car finished 11th on its debut at the RAC Rally in Wales in 1981. Group B received much of the focus for the first part of the 1980s, but Mazda did manage to place third at the 1985 Acropolis Rally, and when the Group B was folded, it's Group A-based replacement, the Familia 4WD claimed the victory at Swedish Rally in both 1987 and 1989. Mazda has made several references to a revival of the RX-7 in various forms over the years since the RX-7 was discontinued. In November 2012, MX-5 program manager Nobuhiro Yamamoto indicated that Mazda was working on a 16X based RX-7, with 300 horsepower.

Toyota Crown
The Toyota Crown is a line of premium medium to full-size luxury sedans by Toyota primarily aimed at the Japanese market and sold in other select Asian markets. Introduced in 1955, it has served as the mainstream sedan from Toyota in the Japanese market throughout its existence and holds the distinction of being the longest running passenger-car nameplate affixed to any Toyota model, along with being the first Toyota vehicle to be exported to the United States in 1958. Its traditional competitors in Japan and Asia have been the Nissan Cedric/Gloria/Fuga and the Honda Legend, along with the defunct Mazda Luce, Isuzu Bellel, and Mitsubishi Debonair. Available at Toyota Store dealers in Japan, the Crown has been popular for government usage, whether as a police car or for transporting government officials. It has also been popular with Japanese companies as company cars along with use as a taxicab. While a base Crown was available for many years aimed at the taxicab market, the increasing opulence and price of the Crown line led to the creation of the Toyota Comfort in 1995 as a more affordable alternative. In North America, the first through fourth generations were offered from 1958 through 1973. It was replaced with the Toyota Corona Mark II, which was later renamed the Toyota Cressida, after which the Cressida was replaced by the Toyota Avalon as Toyota's large sedan. The Crown has also been vicariously succeeded in export markets by its closely related sibling, the Lexus GS, which since its debut in 1991 as the Toyota Aristo, has always shared the Crown's platform and powertrain options, with later models of the GS and Crown taking on a very strong aesthetic kinship through shared design cues. The Crown's history and reputation has given it prominence in the Toyota lineup, as it is one of the few current Toyota models to carry its own unique insignia for the model line with the current Crown having a stylized crown emblem on the grille and steering wheel along with inspiring the names of its smaller progenitors. The Corona, introduced as a smaller companion to the Crown means "crown" in Latin and was initially exported as the "Tiara", while the Corolla took its name from the regal chaplet. The Camry's name is derived from the Japanese phrase kanmuri (冠, かんむり) meaning "little crown" and the Toyota Scepter took its name from the sceptre, an accessory to a crown. It was sold in the United States from 1958 to 1973. Exports to Europe began in 1964 with the first cars going to Finland. Other European countries which saw imports of the Crown included the Netherlands and Belgium. The United Kingdom was another market until the early 1980s. It was also exported to Canada for a few years—1965–68. Australia was another important export market for the Crown—to the extent that it was manufactured there from the mid-1960s until the late 1980s using many local components. Trinidad and Tobago was also another country where the Toyota market had a successful run, which saw some productions between 1960 and 1980. The current island nations of Aruba and Curaçao in the Southern Caribbean also imported the Toyota Crown starting from the 2nd generation (S40) in 1965 in Curaçao up until importation of the 10th generation (S150) was discontinued in 1998 due to the high price and low demand combined with the introduction of the Lexus GS series. The Crown were introduced in 1955 in Japan to meet the demands of public transportation. The Crown was intended for private purchase, while the Master served in a commercial form as a taxi, both with the same 1.5 L Type R engine used on their previous car, the Toyopet Super. The front doors open conventionally, and the rear doors are suicide doors, a feature also utilized on the Toyota AA, Toyota's first car. The Crown was much more popular than the Master due to the more compliant suspension of the Crown, and while the Master was intended for taxi service, the Crown was more accepted by the market over the Master, and more Crowns were sold into taxi service than the Master. The Crown was designed to replace the Super but Toyota was not sure if its independent front coil suspension and its suicide type rear doors were too radical for the taxi market to bear. So the Super was updated, renamed the Master and sold in tandem to the Crown, at Toyota Store locations. When sales of the Crown proved worthwhile, the Master was discontinued in November 1956 after being in production for only one year, and production facilities for the Master were transferred to the Crown. While the Master was discontinued the commercial vehicle based thereon, the Masterline, continued to be offered (utilities, wagons and vans) until 1959. A six-door wagon known as the Airport Limousine was shown as a concept car at the 1961 Tokyo Motor Show. It did not go into production. In December 1955 the Crown Deluxe (RSD) was introduced, a posher model equipped with a radio and heater as standard. The initial RS model received a cosmetic update in 1958 to become the RS20, now with hooded headlights and a single-piece front windshield. In October 1959 Japan's first diesel-engined passenger car, the Crown Diesel, was introduced. Its C-series engine only had 40 PS (29 kW). In October 1960 the 1.5 L R engine was complemented by the larger 1.9 L (1,896 cc) 3R engine for a model called the RS30, originally only available in the Deluxe version. The 1900 was also available with the new two-speed Toyoglide automatic transmission. In April 1961 a Crown Standard 1900 was added. Its coil and double wishbone independent front suspension was a departure from the leaf sprung live axle front suspension used on most previous models but was similar to the independent front suspension used on the 1947 Toyopet SA. The live axle rear suspension was similar to that used on most of the previous models (unlike the trailing arm rear suspension used on the SA). Taxi versions were produced and beginning in March 1959 commercial versions of the vehicle were also available, as an estate wagon and a three- or six-seater coupe utility. These took over the "Toyopet Masterline" name in the Japanese domestic market, but usually received "Crown" badges in the export. The "Crown" name was previously in use by the Imperial limousine manufactured by Chrysler in the early 1950s. Exports of the first Japanese car to the United States began in 1957 and ended in 1960. The car was generally panned by certain members of the U.S audience. As a publicity stunt to demonstrate the car's reliability, Toyota staged a campaign common to American automakers: a coast-to-coast endurance run from Los Angeles to New York. The Toyopet was barely able to limp into Las Vegas before the project had to be called off. Since the car was designed for the muddy, slow, unpaved Japanese roads, it failed the mass urban landscape of the US because of its inability to keep up with traffic on the faster interstate highways. The Crown was simply a very high quality sedan on a truck-like chassis. The overbuilt heavy body was no match for the original 1.5 litre four-cylinder. To try to remedy this, a newer, more powerful engine was expected to be the solution, but the improvements did little to help. A total of 287 Crowns were imported to the US with only five known to have survived. In 1960 the first generation Crown stopped being imported to the US market. Many unhappy dealers were left with unsold Crowns. The Tiara and Land Cruiser would be the only cars imported until the second generation Crown was available five years later. In November 2000, Toyota released the Origin, a retro version of the RS series Crown to celebrate 100 million vehicles having been built in Japan. Due to the introduction of the Corona, the dramatically restyled and enlarged Series S40 was launched in 1962, and saw the introduction of the Custom model. According to the Japanese Wikipedia article for the Crown, the styling was said to be influenced by the recently introduced Ford Falcon in 1960. The front grille approach has a similar appearance to the 1960 Imperial Crown (Chrysler), which speaks to Toyota's aspirations that the Crown be a large, comfortable sedan. The station wagon body style carried over from the previous generation Masterline, but with more attention to the luxurious approach used on the Crown. Headlights were integrated within the boundaries of the greatly enlarged grille, providing a clean, modern appearance. A 2-speed automatic transmission was introduced, called Toyoglide, with a column shift. A bigger and better car than the previous S30 series, it initially had four-cylinder R-series engines before the addition of the "M" six-cylinder engine in 1965. Deluxe and Super Deluxe models were available with added features. The sedan and wagon were known simply as the Crown while the commercial vehicles (coupe utility, double cab coupe utility (pick ups), and van) were known as the Masterline. There was also a limited run of the sedan known as the Toyota Crown S (MS41S) which featured a twin carburettor intake manifold on the 2.0L M in-line-six engine and disc brakes on the front. This Crown became the first Toyota to be exported to Europe, after the head of Denmark's Erla Auto Import A/S saw it at the Tokyo Motor Show. They brought in 190 of these subsequent to a May 1963 agreement. In the US, the MS41L sedan was available in the US for $2,305.00 PoE while the MS46LG station wagon was available for $2,525.00 PoE. Some optional features include an automatic transmission for $160 and a radio for $60. A two-door Crown Convertible was displayed at the 1963 Tokyo Motor Show, based on the Crown 1900 sedan. It was not put into production. This Crown generation was the first to be assembled in Australia, from CKD kits, by AMI in Port Melbourne, with significant local content. AMI, which assembled numerous brands including Triumph and, for a short time, Mercedes-Benz, was to become the basis of Toyota's current Australian manufacturing operation. The longer, wider and more upmarket Crown Eight (ja:トヨタ・クラウンエイト) was introduced in 1964 for the Japanese market, powered by a 2.6 L V8 engine. However, it had a different model designation, VG10. The car was first introduced at the 1963 Tokyo Motor Show and introduced for sale on April 20, 1964, nine days before Emperor Showa's birthday and the beginning of Golden Week in Japan. The Crown Eight was designed primarily to replace full-sized American automobiles that were commonly used by major corporations. The Crown Eight represents the first Japanese mass-produced vehicle with an 8-cylinder engine. The main rivals at the time were the Prince Gloria Super, Mitsubishi Debonair, and Nissan Cedric Special, all equipped with a six-cylinder engine. It was the first Crown to exceed vehicle size classification regulations in length, width and engine displacement capacity. The width at 1,845 mm (72.6 in) compares to the Century at 1,890 mm (74 in), and as such no Crown before or since, including the Crown Majesta, has matched the width dimension of the Crown Eight until the year 2008 for Crown and 2009 for Majesta. The Crown Eight was considered as a possible submission for use by the Japanese Imperial Household Agency as a car to be used by the Royal Family, but it lost out to the Nissan Prince Royal. The Crown Eight was replaced in 1967 by the first Century with the model code VG20. Approx 3,800 Crown Eights were produced. Some of the items that were exclusive to the Crown Eight were electrically powered windows, cruise control, a three-speed "Toyoglide" automatic transmission, and electromagnetic door latches, which were also installed on the Crown Eight successor, the Century. Launched in 1967, the mechanicals were much the same as the previous generation, but additional equipment was included. Higher specification models used the 2.0-liter M engine or the 2.3-liter 2M engine. A premium level Super Deluxe model was available with the 2M engine including twin carburettors, electric windows, rear seat radio controls, air conditioning and luxury fabric on the seating including the crown logo embossed into the vinyl. Lower specified models were equipped with the R-series four-cylinder engines. The previous approach of manufacturing Crown vehicles for commercial use, called the Masterline, was discontinued with this generation. The Crown range now included the 4-door station wagon, pick-up (rare), double cab pick-up (very rare) and the new two-door hardtop. In 1969 the Crown received a face lift for the headlight, grill and trim arrangement. The Crown S used the two-litre 'six', but due to sportier tuning it produced more power than the larger 2M, 125 PS (92 kW) at 5,800 rpm versus 115 PS (85 kW) at 5,200 rpm. The commercial versions were fitted with the six-cylinder "M" engine (M-C) produce 105 PS (77 kW), while the four-cylinder 5R had to make do with 93 PS (68 kW). Crown's that were equipped with the 2,253 cc 2M engine were no longer classified as compact cars under Japanese vehicle size classification regulations, even though the length and width were still in compliance. Toyota offered the larger engine so that buyers who were traditionally served by the Crown could now choose the all-new Corona Mark II in 1968. This allowed Toyota to reposition the Crown as the top level privately available luxury sedan, with much nicer interior treatments, more spacious accommodations. This was the last generation for the pick-up versions of the Crown, as load carrying was ceded to the new Toyota Hilux in February 1971. This generation was imported fully assembled into New Zealand from 1968 to 1971.][ Australian models were assembled in Australia by AMI.][ Notable features on the wagon were: Launched in Feb 1971, the 4M 2600 engine was introduced with this generation, as was the luxurious Super Saloon trim level, followed by the Super Deluxe and Deluxe. The top of the line Royal Saloon was first introduced in the face-lifted Crown from 1973. The 2.0-liter 5R inline-four engine and the 2.0-liter M six-cylinder engine were also available. As for the previous generation, the M-C engine (in Japanese specifications) has 105 PS (77 kW), while the 5R's output increased somewhat to 98 PS (72 kW). In some markets the previous 2.3 litre "2M" six remained available, in sedan or "utility wagon" forms. The Utility Wagon was a version half way between commercial and passenger car, and had chassis codes MS67V until the early 1973 facelift when it was replaced by the MS68V with the 2.6 engine. The Sedan and Wagon (Custom) are coded RS60/MS60/MS64/MS65 and MS62/MS63, while the Van was coded MS66V with the two liter "six". The Hardtop Coupe is MS70 (2.0-liter), or MS75 (2.6-liter). The Japanese market Crown Custom (Wagon) was classified as a seven-seater. This generation was the first Crown marketed as a Toyota in Japan, as previous models were marketed as Toyopets. Also, in Japan, this model was known as the "blue whale" or "kujira" Crown. While the domestic market Hardtop has rectangular halogen headlights, all export models come with twin round headlights. This model sold very badly in the US, possibly related to the futuristic styling (called "spindle-shaped" in period marketing material) with flush bumpers that was a bit ahead of its time. Only the first two years were imported to the USA. The Corona Mark II, replaced the Crown in North America. The trunk could be opened remotely by turning the ignition key to the far left, and a button on the floor caused the radio to engage the signal seeking feature. A separate signal seeking feature was installed for rear seat passengers, installed behind the front seat facing the rear seat compartment. The 60-series Crown underwent a facelift in January 1973. Australian models were assembled in Australia by AMI.][ It was available in New Zealand fully imported from 1971 to 1973, with local assembly beginning at Steels Motor Assemblies - who also built the Corona - not long before the mid-life facelift, improving availability. Steels subsequently became Toyota NZ's Christchurch CKD assembly plant.][ Launched in 1974 in Japan, export began from 1975. Offered as four-door sedan, 2-door hardtop coupe, 4-door hardtop sedan, wagon, and van. Engines are 2.0 and 2.6-liter gasoline. The 2.2-liter diesel was introduced September 1978. Trim levels are Standard, Deluxe, Super Saloon, and Royal Saloon. Minor change was given in 1978. This version of the Crown saw the introduction of disc brakes at both the front and rear axles with anti-lock brakes, speed sensitive power steering, and a 4-speed automatic transmission with overdrive. Initially available with the "old style" 4M engine with rounded valve cover, later models switched to the new 4M engine with rectangular valve cover. This generation also saw the introduction of fuel injection on both the 2.6-liter 4M and the 2.0-liter M engines, coupled with Toyota's TTC-C technology, adding a catalytic converter to the exhaust system. Select models also were available with 4-wheel disc brakes and twin piston calipers on the front brakes. The models installed with the diesel engine was exclusive to Toyota Diesel Store locations. The Hardtop Sedan model has a front chrome grill and square headlights, but was no longer considered a true hardtop, due to the inclusion of a "B" pillar. The styling differences between the hardtop and sedan four-door models was that the side windows on the hardtop were frameless, and the rear window was sloped more than the formal appearing sedan. This series Crown exceeded length regulations of 4.7 m by 65 mm set forth by Japanese regulations, but Toyota continued to offer a 2.0 L engine for buyers who were looking for better fuel economy over the larger six-cylinder engines. New Zealand models were assembled in New Zealand but on an SKD basis - which meant it had more Japanese content (such as glass) than earlier CKD versions. It was the last Crown built in New Zealand and was replaced in 1979 by the Cressida (MK II), which was available with a four-cylinder engine. The oil crises of 1973/4 and 1979/80 had led the government to impose a 60% sales tax on larger engines, and the Crown could no longer be priced to suit its market.][ Launched in 1979, this model had the engine upgraded from the 2.6 L to 2.8 L 5M-EU model. The 2-liter M was still on offer along with a turbocharged version—the M-TEU. The carburated 5M engine was also available in certain markets. In this series the model designation referred to the engine size—MS110 (2-liter), MS111 (2.6-liter), MS112 (2.8-liter). This was the last generation to install a four cylinder, gasoline powered engine. This model was exported to the U.S. and approximately 28,000 were sold. Early models have twin rectangular headlights, facelift models come with bigger monoblock headlights. Domestic market Royal Saloons use the large rectangular headlights. Lower grades Van and Taxi adopt round headlights. Royal Saloon features longer bumpers. The first Crown Turbo was launched in October 1980 for Japanese market only. Offering the 2.0 L engines was for buyers who were comfortable with paying the large car tax, while offering better fuel economy than the larger engines. This generation is the last for 2-door Hardtop Coupe, which was replaced by the Soarer. Some of the options that became available were a glass moon roof, power drivers seat, cruise control, electronic stereo tuner, and two-tone paint. Automatic climate control also appeared on this vehicle with separate controls installed for rear seat passengers as well as a rear-mounted mini fridge cooled by the separate rear seat air conditioning unit . The 2.4 L turbo diesel appeared August 1982. Launched in 1983, this model used all three versions of the 5M 2.8-liter engine, the 5M carburetted version, 5M-E single overhead cam (SOHC) fuel-injected version, 5M-GE double overhead cam (DOHC), 1G-GE 2000 cc DOHC, M-TE 2000 cc single overhead cam (SOHC) Turbo, M-E 2000 cc SOHC, 2L-TE 2400 cc SOHC Turbo Diesel or 2L 2400 cc SOHC Diesel engines. Base versions use the new 2-liter 1G-E engine which replaced the old 2-liter version of the M series. The "van" version of the station wagon (the GS126V as well as the GS136V in the following series) used its own unique variant of this motor (the 1G-EJ). The lower grade models were available with Toyota's F292 live axle rear suspension while the rest introduced 4-wheel independent suspension on the Crown for the first time. The S120 was available in Hardtop sedan (frameless door glass), sedan and wagon versions. The Super Saloon and Royal Saloon versions were packed with features such as dual zone climate control, front and rear stereo and A/C control buttons, parcel shelf mounted refrigerator, automatic headlights, reading lamps for all outboard seating positions, tilt & telescoping steering column, glovebox mounted courtesy mirror among many things. One distinctive styling feature of this generation was the use of a clear panel with patterned backing for the C-pillar trim on the sedans. This is also the last model to be assembled in Port Melbourne, Australia from Australian Motor Industries. For the Japanese market only, Toyota made the 190 hp (142 kW)][ Twincam 12-valve 3.0-liter 6M-GE available on the Royal Saloon for the mid cycle update. This engine is a popular swap for 5M-GE powered Supras and Cressidas of the same period. Launched in 1987. Body style: Sedan, Hardtop, and Wagon, included the commercial Van. This model used 7M-GE 3000 cc DOHC, 1G-GZE 2000 cc DOHC Super Charger, 1G-E 2000 cc DOHC, 2L-THE 2400 cc SOHC Turbo Diesel Hi Power (AT Use), 2L-TE 2400 cc SOHC Turbo Diesel (MT Use) or 2L 2400 cc SOHC Diesel engines. The 4.0-liter 1UZ-FE, the same engine as in Lexus LS400, was only for Royal Saloon G, which became the Toyota Crown Majesta in the next model revision in 1992. Although a totally different chassis and body, the S130 shares styling cues with the MX83 Cressida. In 1991, when the Crown Hardtop was redesigned and became the S140 series, the Crown Sedan and Wagon were also restyled but retained S130 platform. At this point the 1JZ-GE and 2JZ-GE engines replaced the M-series in-line-six engines for the Crown lineup. In Hong Kong and Singapore, the Crown Sedan with the diesel engine was the most common vehicle used as taxis. The Crown Royal Saloon was an exclusive car. Unique for a large sedan was Crown 3.0 Super Saloon with 5-speed manual transmission sold in Indonesia. The Crown Hardtop and all-new Crown Majesta models were built on the 140-series platform. The rebodied Crown Sedan and Wagon still carried S130 model codes, although the exterior is rounder, and the nose is similar to S140 Hardtop. Styling was largely influenced by the newly created Lexus LS, which was later sold in Japan as the Toyota Celsior at Toyopet Store locations, while the Crown and Crown Majesta remained exclusive to Toyota Store locations. This generation Crown platform was also shared with the Toyota Aristo, which was exclusive to Toyota Vista Store locations. Trim levels for Sedan are Standard, Deluxe, Super Deluxe, Super Saloon, Royal Saloon, and Royal Saloon G. Engine choices were 2.0, 2.5, 3.0-liter gasoline, and 2.4-liter diesel. The 4.0-liter was offered for Royal Saloon G and Majesta. Although the Crown Majesta was related to the Crown and shared the same S140-series chassis designation, it was bigger, more luxurious and had a V8 engine shared with the Lexus LS and had many expensive electronic options. The Crown Majesta has been produced as a separate model with distinct styling since 1991. The Standard Sedan for Taxi and base model Wagon feature round headlights and chrome bumpers. The taxi is powered by 2.4-liter diesel engine matched to 4-speed column-mounted manual transmission. The 150-series Crown were built as Sedan and Hardtop (frameless door window) only. This was the first Crown to not use separate chassis construction. The Wagon retained the old and uninspired 130 series model until 1999. Trim levels for Hardtop are Royal Extra, Royal Saloon, Royal Saloon G, and the sporty Royal Touring. 4WD is offered for Royal Extra and Royal Saloon. Engine is either 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0-liter 6-cylinder. This generation Crown was not exported in great numbers. It was mainly sent to Southeast Asian markets such as Singapore and Hong Kong. These Crowns, with sedan rather than hardtop bodywork, were fitted either with the 2.0-litre 1G-FE or the 3-litre 2JZ-GE unit depending on market conditions. In an effort to return to the original purpose of the Crown, which was to serve as a taxi, the Crown Comfort had smaller exterior dimensions but a roomier and taller interior than the Crown Royal series. To reduce unnecessary cost and weight and increase interior space, the more luxurious dashboard and fitments (including leather seats) of the Crown Royal were replaced with less bulky all-plastic versions. The Comfort is also used as an instructional vehicle for people learning how to drive. The Comfort is powered by either the 3C diesel engine (5L for the Singapore market, LXS10) or the 2-litre 3Y-PE LPG engine (YXS10). The Japanese model has fender mirrors and an automatic (driver-activated) rear door. The Crown Comfort is popular among taxicab in Japan, and Hong Kong, but is gradually falling out of favour as better-appointed vehicles become available at competitive cost. The new Crown Sedan for the Japanese market only is based on the Comfort, but has wider tail lights and longer bumpers. The 170-series features shorter front overhang therefore maximizes interior and trunk space. There are two different 170-series 4-door Saloon; the Royal, and Athlete. The Majesta is a separate vehicle which is larger and longer than the Crown. The 4-door Hardtop was discontinued. The 170-series Estate was the first new Crown Wagon after the 130-series. Engine is either 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0. The Athlete V has 2.5-liter 1JZ-GTE turbo. The Royal was also offered with a 3.0-liter 2JZ-FSE mild hybrid. The S180 model of the Crown was based on the Zero Crown concept car. The engine was changed to a V6 for the new Royal and Athlete models, while the Crown Majesta used the V8 only, now in 4.3-liter form with 4WD optional. The new engines gave more performance while also giving better fuel economy. G-BOOK is introduced in May 2006. Compared with the previous model, this model was increased by 70 mm (2.8 in) in the wheelbase and 15 mm (0.6 in) in body width. These changes gave it the largest interior size among its contemporaries, more than the Mercedes-Benz E-Class or BMW 5-series. The S170 series Crown Estate was continued alongside the S180 sedans. It continued using the older inline 6-cylinder engines. This generation of the Crown is available in 4 different trim levels: the Crown Royal series which is a more comfortable and luxurious car; the Crown Athlete series which takes the luxurious aspect of the Royal series but has more aggressive styling and sporty features; the Crown Majesta series with different styling and more luxurious features than the Royal series; and the Crown Hybrid series which is a trim level designated for the hybrid V6 drivetrain. The Crown is one of the first vehicles to have a 3 Dimensional Satellite Navigation System coupled with G-BOOK and boasts many features that have not been developed by other luxury car makers. This system can adjust the damper firmness for corners based on map data and change transmission gear shift timings and engine braking for merging on and off highways and approaching tollbooths. The Crown Hybrid also features Night View with a pedestrian detection system. The Crown is set to rival the European BMW 5 series, Mercedes E-class, Audi A6 and the Japanese Honda Legend & Nissan Fuga. This is the longest and widest Crown to be built until the arrival of the fourteenth generation (S210 model). The Crown Athlete has been tested to do 0–100 km/h in under 6 seconds, while the Crown Hybrid has been estimated to take 5.4 seconds due to the additional power of the hybrid motor. The mechanically similar Lexus GS 450H Hybrid (GWS191) outputs 253 kW (339 bhp).][ The Crown hybrid concept was exhibited at 2007 Tokyo Motor Show. In television commercials in Japan a song was written by composer John Harle titled "How should I my true love know?" 2.5 L 4GR-FSE V6 205HP
2.5 L 2AR-FSE L4 (Hybrid) 217HP
2.5L 1,725 kg (3,803.0 lb)
3.0L 1,798 kg (3,963.9 lb)
3.5L 1,825 kg (4,023.4 lb)
3.5L Supercharged1,845 kg (4,067.5 lb)
The fourteenth generation Crown was launched in December 2012 with new styling, with the Royal series front styling theme paying homage to the 5th generation MS105 series. Most aspects of the car can be controlled by Toyota Multi-Operation Touch panel. The Crown Royal is available with the 2.5 L 4GR-FSE V6 engine with a 6-speed automatic (RWD or 4WD) or the 2.5 2AR-FSE inline-4 with THS II (RWD only). The Crown Athlete shares the same engines but also has an optional 3.5 L 2GR-FSE V6 engine with an 8-speed automatic (RWD only).

Horsepower (hp) is the name of several units of measurement of power, the rate at which work is done. The most common conversion factor, especially for electrical power, is 1 hp = 746 watts. The term was adopted in the late 18th century by Scottish engineer James Watt to compare the output of steam engines with the power of draft horses. It was later expanded to include the output power of other types of piston engines, as well as turbines, electric motors and other machinery. The definition of the unit varied between geographical regions. Most countries now use the SI unit watt for measurement of power. With the implementation of the EU Directive 80/181/EEC on January 1, 2010, the use of horsepower in the EU is only permitted as supplementary unit.][ Units called "horsepower" have differing definitions: The development of the steam engine provided a reason to compare the output of horses with that of the engines that could replace them. In 1702, Thomas Savery wrote in The Miner's Friend: "So that an engine which will raise as much water as two horses, working together at one time in such a work, can do, and for which there must be constantly kept ten or twelve horses for doing the same. Then I say, such an engine may be made large enough to do the work required in employing eight, ten, fifteen, or twenty horses to be constantly maintained and kept for doing such a work…" The idea was later used by James Watt to help market his improved steam engine. He had previously agreed to take royalties of one third of the savings in coal from the older Newcomen steam engines. This royalty scheme did not work with customers who did not have existing steam engines but used horses instead. Watt determined that a horse could turn a mill wheel 144 times in an hour (or 2.4 times a minute). The wheel was 12 feet in radius; therefore, the horse travelled 2.4 × 2π × 12 feet in one minute. Watt judged that the horse could pull with a force of 180 pounds. So: This was rounded to an even 33,000 ft·lbf/min. Others][ recount that Watt determined that a pony could lift an average 220 lbf (0.98 kN) 100 ft (30 m) per minute over a four-hour working shift. Watt then judged a horse was 50% more powerful than a pony and thus arrived at the 33,000 ft·lbf/min figure. Engineering in History recounts that John Smeaton initially estimated that a horse could produce 22,916 foot-pounds per minute. John Desaguliers had previously suggested 44,000 foot-pounds per minute and Tredgold 27,500 foot-pounds per minute. "Watt found by experiment in 1782 that a 'brewery horse' could produce 32,400 foot-pounds per minute." James Watt and Matthew Boulton standardized that figure at 33,000 the next year. Most observers familiar with horses and their capabilities estimate that Watt was either a bit optimistic or intended to underpromise and overdeliver; few horses can maintain that effort for long. Regardless, comparison with a horse proved to be an enduring marketing tool. In 1993, R. D. Stevenson and R. J. Wassersug published an article calculating the upper limit to an animal's power output. The peak power over a few seconds has been measured to be as high as 14.9 hp. However, Stevenson and Wassersug observe that for sustained activity, a work rate of about 1 hp per horse is consistent with agricultural advice from both 19th and 20th century sources. When considering human-powered equipment, a healthy human can produce about 1.2 hp briefly (see orders of magnitude) and sustain about 0.1 hp indefinitely; trained athletes can manage up to about 2.5 hp briefly and 0.3 hp for a period of several hours. For a given torque and angular speed, the power may be calculated: the relationship when using a coherent system of units (such as SI) is simply P = \tau \omega, where P is power, \tau is torque, and \omega is angular speed. But when using other units or when reckoning the speed in full rotations rather than radians, a constant has to be added to the equation. When torque is in foot-pounds, rotational speed (f) is in rpm and power is in horsepower: The constant 5252 is the rounded value of (33,000 ft·lbf/min)/(2π rad/rev). When torque is in inch pounds: The constant 63,025 is the rounded value of (33,000 ft·lbf/min) × (12 in/ft)/(2π rad/rev). The following definitions have been widely used: = 550 ft·lbf/s
≈ 17696 lbm·ft2/s3
= 745.699 881 448 W ≡ 735.498 750 000 W = 9,809.5 W or
= flow rate (US gal/min) × pressure (psi) / 1714
= 550 ft·lbf/s
= 745.69988145 W In certain situations it is necessary to distinguish between the various definitions of horsepower and thus a suffix is added: hp(I) for mechanical (or imperial) horsepower, hp(M) for metric horsepower, hp(S) for boiler (or steam) horsepower and hp(E) for electrical horsepower. Hydraulic horsepower is equivalent to mechanical horsepower. The formula given above is for conversion to mechanical horsepower from the factors acting on a hydraulic system. Assuming the third CGPM (1901, CR 70) definition of standard gravity, gn=9.80665 m/s2, is used to define the pound-force as well as the kilogram force, and the international avoirdupois pound (1959), one mechanical horsepower is: Or given that 1 hp = 550 ft·lbf/s, 1 ft = 0.3048 m, 1 lbf ≈ 4.448 N, 1 J = 1 N·m, 1 W = 1 J/s: 1 hp = 746 W The various units used to indicate this definition (PS, cv, hk, pk, ks and ch) all translate to horse power in English, so it is common to see these values referred to as horsepower or hp in the press releases or media coverage of the German, French, Italian, and Japanese automobile companies. British manufacturers often intermix metric horsepower and mechanical horsepower depending on the origin of the engine in question. Sometimes the metric horsepower rating of an engine is conservative enough so that the same figure can be used for both 80/1269/EEC with metric hp and SAE J1349 with imperial hp. DIN 66036 defines one metric horsepower as the power to raise a mass of 75 kilograms against the earth's gravitational force over a distance of one metre in one second; this is equivalent to 735.49875 W or 98.6% of an imperial mechanical horsepower. In 1972, the PS was rendered obsolete by EEC directives, when it was replaced by the kilowatt as the official power measuring unit. It is still in use for commercial and advertising purposes, in addition to the kW rating, as many customers are still not familiar with the use of kilowatts for engines. Other names for the metric horsepower are the Dutch paardenkracht (pk), the French chevaux (ch), the Swedish hästkraft (hk), the Finnish hevosvoima (hv), the Norwegian and Danish hestekraft (hk), the Hungarian lóerő (LE), the Czech koňská síla and Slovak konská sila (k or ks), the Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian konjska snaga (KS),the Bulgarian "Конска сила", the Macedonian Коњска сила (KC), the Polish koń mechaniczny and Slovenian konjska moč (KM) and the Romanian cal-putere (CP) which all equal the German Pferdestärke (PS). In addition, the capital form CV is used in Italy and France as a unit for tax horsepower, short for, respectively, cavalli vapore and chevaux vapeur (steam horses). CV is a non-linear rating of a motor vehicle for tax purposes. The CV rating, or fiscal power, is \scriptstyle\left(\tfrac{P}{40}\right)^{1.6} + \tfrac{U}{45}, where P is the maximum power in kilowatts and U is the amount of CO2 emitted in grams per kilometre. The term for CO2 measurements has only been included in the definition since 1998, so older ratings in CV are not directly comparable. The fiscal power has found its way into naming of automobile models, such as the popular Citroën deux-chevaux. The cheval-vapeur (ch) unit should not be confused with the French cheval fiscal (CV). In the 19th century, the French had their own unit, which they used instead of the CV or horsepower. It was called the poncelet and was abbreviated p. The horsepower used for electrical machines is defined as exactly 746 W. The nameplates on electrical motors show their power output, not their power input. Outside the United States watts are generally used for electrical power applications. Drawbar horsepower (dbhp) is the power a railway locomotive has available to haul a train or an agricultural tractor to pull an implement. This is a measured figure rather than a calculated one. A special railway car called a dynamometer car coupled behind the locomotive keeps a continuous record of the drawbar pull exerted, and the speed. From these, the power generated can be calculated. To determine the maximum power available, a controllable load is required; it is normally a second locomotive with its brakes applied, in addition to a static load. If the drawbar force (F) is measured in pounds-force (lbf) and speed (v) is measured in miles per hour (mph), then the drawbar power (P) in horsepower (hp) is: Example: How much power is needed to pull a drawbar load of 2,025 pounds-force at 5 miles per hour? The constant 375 is because 1 hp = 375 lbf·mph. If other units are used, the constant is different. When using a coherent system of units, such as SI (watts, newtons, and metres per second), no constant is needed, and the formula becomes P = Fv. This measure was instituted by the Royal Automobile Club in Britain and was used to denote the power of early 20th-century British cars. Many cars took their names from this figure (hence the Austin Seven and Riley Nine), while others had names such as "40/50 hp", which indicated the RAC figure followed by the true measured power. Taxable horsepower does not reflect developed horsepower; rather, it is a calculated figure based on the engine's bore size, number of cylinders, and a (now archaic) presumption of engine efficiency. As new engines were designed with ever-increasing efficiency, it was no longer a useful measure, but was kept in use by UK regulations which used the rating for tax purposes. This is equal to the displacement in cubic inches divided by 10π then divided again by the stroke in inches. Since taxable horsepower was computed based on bore and number of cylinders, not based on actual displacement, it gave rise to engines with 'undersquare' dimensions (bore smaller than stroke) this tended to impose an artificially low limit on rotational speed (rpm), hampering the potential power output and efficiency of the engine. The situation persisted for several generations of four- and six-cylinder British engines: for example, Jaguar's 3.4-litre XK engine of the 1950s had six cylinders with a bore of 83 mm (3.27 in) and a stroke of 106 mm (4.17 in), where most American automakers had long since moved to oversquare (large bore, short stroke) V-8s (see, for example, the early Chrysler Hemi). The power of an engine may be measured or estimated at several points in the transmission of the power from its generation to its application. A number of names are used for the power developed at various stages in this process, but none is a clear indicator of either the measurement system or definition used. In the case of an engine dynamometer, power is measured at the engine's flywheel. With a chassis dynamometer or rolling road, power output is measured at the driving wheels. This accounts for the significant power loss through the drive train. In general: All the above assumes that no power inflation factors have been applied to any of the readings. Engine designers use expressions other than horsepower to denote objective targets or performance, such as brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). This is a coefficient of theoretical brake horsepower and cylinder pressures during combustion. Nominal horsepower (nhp) is an early 19th-century rule of thumb used to estimate the power of steam engines. nhp = 7 x area of piston x equivalent piston speed/33,000 For paddle ships the piston speed was estimated as 129.7 x (stroke)1/3.35 For the nominal horsepower to equal the actual power it would be necessary for the mean steam pressure in the cylinder during the stroke to be 48 kPa (7 psi) and for the piston speed to be of the order of 54–75 m/min. Indicated horsepower (ihp) is the theoretical power of a reciprocating engine if it is completely frictionless in converting the expanding gas energy (piston pressure × displacement) in the cylinders. It is calculated from the pressures developed in the cylinders, measured by a device called an engine indicator – hence indicated horsepower. As the piston advances throughout its stroke, the pressure against the piston generally decreases, and the indicator device usually generates a graph of pressure vs stroke within the working cylinder. From this graph the amount of work performed during the piston stroke may be calculated. It was the figure normally used for steam engines in the 19th century but is misleading because the actual power output may only be 70% to 90% of the indicated horsepower. Brake horsepower (bhp) is the measure of an engine's horsepower before the loss in power caused by the gearbox, alternator, differential, water pump, and other auxiliary components such as power steering pump, muffled exhaust system, etc. Brake refers to a device which was used to load an engine and hold it at a desired rotational speed. During testing, the output torque and rotational speed were measured to determine the brake horsepower. Horsepower was originally measured and calculated by use of the "indicator" (a James Watt invention of the late 18th century), and later by means of a De Prony brake connected to the engine's output shaft. More recently, an engine dynamometer is used instead of a De Prony brake. Although the output delivered to the driving wheels is less than that obtainable at the engine's crankshaft, a chassis dynamometer gives an indication of an engine's "real world" horsepower after losses in the drive train and gearbox. This gives a reasonably accurate indication of how a wheeled vehicle engine will perform once on the road. Shaft horsepower (shp) is the power delivered to the propeller shafts of a steamship (or one powered by diesel engines or nuclear power), or an aircraft powered by a piston engine or a gas turbine engine, and the rotors of a helicopter. This shaft horsepower can be measured with instruments, or estimated from the indicated horsepower and a standard figure for the losses in the transmission (typical figures are around 10%). This measure is not commonly used in the automobile industry, because in that context drive train losses can become significant. Engine power test codes determine how the power and torque of an automobile engine is measured and corrected. Correction factors are used to adjust power and torque measurements to standard atmospheric conditions to provide a more accurate comparison between engines as they are affected by the pressure, humidity, and temperature of ambient air. There exist several standards for this purpose, some described below. Prior to the 1972 model year, American automakers rated and advertised their engines in brake horsepower (bhp), frequently referred to as SAE gross horsepower, because it was measured in accord with the protocols defined in SAE standards J245 and J1995. As with other brake horsepower test protocols, SAE gross hp was measured using a stock test engine, generally running with few belt-driven accessories and sometimes fitted with long tube test headers in lieu of the OEM exhaust manifolds. The atmospheric correction standards for barometric pressure, humidity and temperature for testing were relatively idealistic. In the United States, the term bhp fell into disuse in 1971-72, as automakers began to quote power in terms of SAE net horsepower in accord with SAE standard J1349. Like SAE gross and other brake horsepower protocols, SAE Net hp is measured at the engine's crankshaft, and so does not account for transmission losses. However, the SAE net power testing protocol calls for standard production-type belt-driven accessories, air cleaner, emission controls, exhaust system, and other power-consuming accessories. This produces ratings in closer alignment with the power produced by the engine as it is actually configured and sold. In 2005, the SAE introduced "SAE Certified Power" with SAE J2723. This test is voluntary and is in itself not a separate engine test code but a certification of either J1349 or J1995 after which the manufacturer is allowed to advertise "Certified to SAE J1349" or "Certified to SAE J1995" depending on which test standard have been followed. To attain certification the test must follow the SAE standard in question, take place in an ISO9000/9002 certified facility and be witnessed by an SAE approved third party. A few manufacturers such as Honda and Toyota switched to the new ratings immediately, with multi-directional results; the rated output of Cadillac's supercharged Northstar V8 jumped from 440 to 469 hp (330 to 350 kW) under the new tests, while the rating for Toyota's Camry 3.0 L 1MZ-FE V6 fell from 210 to 190 hp (160 to 140 kW). The company's Lexus ES 330 and Camry SE V6 were previously rated at 225 hp (168 kW) but the ES 330 dropped to 218 hp (163 kW) while the Camry declined to 210 hp (160 kW). The first engine certified under the new program was the 7.0 L LS7 used in the 2006 Chevrolet Corvette Z06. Certified power rose slightly from 500 to 505 hp (373 to 377 kW). While Toyota and Honda are retesting their entire vehicle lineups, other automakers generally are retesting only those with updated powertrains. For example, the 2006 Ford Five Hundred is rated at 203 horsepower, the same as that of 2005 model. However, the 2006 rating does not reflect the new SAE testing procedure as Ford is not going to spend the extra expense of retesting its existing engines. Over time, most automakers are expected to comply with the new guidelines. SAE tightened its horsepower rules to eliminate the opportunity for engine manufacturers to manipulate factors affecting performance such as how much oil was in the crankcase, engine control system calibration, and whether an engine was tested with premium fuel. In some cases, such can add up to a change in horsepower ratings. A road test editor at, John Di Pietro, said decreases in horsepower ratings for some '06 models are not that dramatic. For vehicles like a midsize family sedan, it is likely that the reputation of the manufacturer will be more important. DIN 70020 is a standard from German DIN regarding road vehicles. Because the German word for horsepower is Pferdestärke, in Germany it is commonly abbreviated to PS. DIN hp is measured at the engine's output shaft, and is usually expressed in metric (Pferdestärke) rather than mechanical horsepower. ECE R24 is a UN standard for the approval of compression ignition engine emissions, installation and measurement of engine power. It is similar to DIN 70020 standard, but with different requirements for connecting an engine's fan during testing causing it to absorb less power from the engine. ECE R85 is a UN standard for the approval of internal combustion engines with regard to the measurement of the net power. 80/1269/EEC of 16 December 1980 is a European Union standard for road vehicle engine power. JIS D 1001 is a Japanese net, and gross, engine power test code for automobiles or trucks having a spark ignition, diesel engine, or fuel injection engine.
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Toyota Supra

The Toyota Supra is a sports car/grand tourer that was produced by Toyota Motor Corporation from 1978 to 2002. The styling of the Toyota Supra was derived from the Toyota Celica, but it was both longer and wider. Starting in mid-1986, the Supra (in its third generation, Mark III) became a separate model from the Celica. In turn, Toyota also stopped using the prefix Celica and began just calling the car Supra. Owing to the similarity and past of the Celica's name, it is frequently mistaken for the Supra, and vice versa. First, second and third generation Supras were assembled at Tahara plant in Tahara, Aichi while the MKIV Supra was assembled at the Motomachi plant in Toyota City.

The Supra also traces much of its roots back to the Toyota 2000GT with the main instance being its engine. The first three generations were offered with a direct descendant to the Toyota Crown's and 2000GT's M engine. All four generations of Supra produced have an inline 6-cylinder engine. Interior aspects were also similar, as was the chassis code "A".

Toyota Horsepower

During its history the Toyota Supra has enjoyed considerable success in a variety of different motorsports.

Toyota JZ engine

The Toyota JZ engine family is a series of inline-6 automobile engines. A replacement for the M-series inline-6 engines, the JZ engines were 24-valve DOHC engines. The JZ engine was offered in 2.5- and 3.0-litre versions.

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Sports cars

A sports car (sportscar is a small, usually two seat, two door automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling. Sports cars may be spartan or luxurious but high maneuverability and minimum weight are requisite.

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