Can a 9th grade student job shadow a police officer?


... to drop out in ninth grade than any other grade, according to Patty Cantu, ... What does a police officer do?? ?In middle school, we ask students to start. Take it to the next level by finding products or services that you can sell to ... The job shadow program is exactly as it sounds: a student follows a

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The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) is the part of the United States Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences (IES) that collects, analyzes, and publishes statistics on education and public school district finance information in the United States. It also conducts international comparisons of education statistics and provides leadership in developing and promoting the use of standardized terminology and definitions for the collection of those statistics. NCES is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System. On July 9, 2010, President Barack Obama nominated Jack Buckley to the Senate to be the next Commissioner, and he was confirmed in the Senate on December 23, 2010 for a term expiring June 21, 2015. The functions of NCES have existed in some form since 1867, when Congress passed legislation providing ‘‘That there shall be established at the City of Washington, a department of education, for the purpose of collecting such statistics and facts as shall show the condition and progress of education in the several States and Territories, and of diffusing such information respecting the organization and management of schools and school systems, and methods of teaching, as shall aid the people of the United States in the establishment and maintenance of efficient school systems, and otherwise promote the cause of education throughout the country.’’ The National Center for Education Statistics fulfills a Congressional mandate to collect, collate, analyze, and report complete statistics on the condition of American education; conduct and publish reports; and review and report on education activities internationally. The structure and activities of the center are as follows: The Office of the Commissioner sets policy and standards for the Center and oversees its operation, thus ensuring that statistical quality and confidentiality are maintained. The Office of the Deputy Commissioner, which includes the Chief Statistican and the Chief Technology Officer, provides state-of-the-art technology and statistical support to the Center and to federal and nonfederal organizations and entities involved in statistical work in support of NCES. In addition, the staff develops and operates a licensing system for individuals and organizations who require access to confidential data for statistical purposes. Early Childhood, International and Crosscutting Studies Division (ECICSD) has responsibility within NCES for international comparisons, early childhood education, and school crime and safety. It is responsible for conducting studies and producing reports that cut across all levels of education, from early childhood through lifelong learning, and for maintaining relations with key international and interagency groups. The division also manages an on-going program to monitor American education through its annual reports, The Condition of Education, Digest of Education Statistics, and Projections of Education Statistics, and produces NCES's Programs and Plans. Elementary/Secondary and Libraries Studies Division (ESLSD) oversees planning, design, operations, statistical analysis, reporting, and dissemination for elementary, secondary, and library surveys at the national, state, and local levels. The staff also work with state and local representatives in the development and implementation of the Congressionally mandated National Cooperative Education Statistics System in the areas of elementary, secondary and libraries. Postsecondary, Adult, and Career Education Division (PACE) oversees planning, design, operations, statistical analysis, reporting, and dissemination on postsecondary education, adult education, and career and technical education. PACE collects universe data on postsecondary institutions; conducts sample surveys on student financial aid and student access, persistence, completion, and outcomes of postsecondary education; and collects data on the education and training that youth and adults need to prepare for work. PACE staff are content knowledge experts and serve as consultants to programs in NCES that assess the academic proficiency and literacy of young adults, college students, and adults. In addition, PACE has responsibility within NCES for responding to the Congressional mandate to collect and report data on Career and Technical Education for high school students, college students, and adults. PACE maintains a robust publication and dissemination program to share the results of these studies with the public. Assessment Division (AD) creates, designs, develops, implements and reports on the National Assessment of Educational Progress at the national level and coordinates assessment and related data collection activities with the states. The staff also conducts a variety of other related education assessment studies.
Seventh grade (called grade seven or year 7 in some regions) is a year of education in many nations. The seventh grade is the seventh school year after kindergarten. Students are usually 12–13 years old. Traditionally, seventh grade was the next-to-last year of grade school. In the United States and Canada, it is usually the second, third, or last year of middle school, the first year of junior high school or the 7th year of grade school. In Quebec, it is usually the last year of elementary school, or the first year of high school. In the United States, it is important in mathematics, students focus commonly on an introduction to pre-algebra or the beginnings of algebra, including ratio, proportion, percent. New topics sometimes include scientific notation, concepts with negative numbers, and more advanced geometry. In some parts of the United States, such as Texas, Colorado, California and Utah, math may be mixed-grade according to the student's previous knowledge, so some students may already be in a 9th grade algebra course. In social studies, advanced pre-Civil War History is taught. Though American history is usually the norm, other cultures and time periods may be taught. In science, it is usually moderate-level biology. In some parts of the United States, seventh grade is the first school year in which students have different teachers for each of their subjects, and so they change classrooms at the end of each period. Foreign language is often introduced at this level. The students can typically choose from several languages depending on school ability. In some states of Australia, including Victoria, New South Wales, Australian Capital Territory, and Tasmania, Year 7 is the first year of high school, but it is actually the eighth year of schooling (Prep, 1 through 6 then Year 7). In Australia year 7s are aged 12–13 years old. In Ireland, the equivalent is called First Year or Céad Bhliain, the first year of secondary school. Students are usually 12–13 years old. Its English and Welsh equivalent is Year 8, the second year of secondary education. The Northern Irish equivalent is Year 9 or Second Form, also the second year of secondary education. The Scottish equivalent is Secondary 2 or S2 - the second year of Secondary education. In Brazil, the time for elementary school were recently raised from 8 to 9 years, and the minimum age required to the seventh grade was changed from 11 to 12 years old. In the Philippines, the age to be a grade six student is between 12 and 15 years old. In some places, 7th graders are aged 12 to 13 years old. Now with K to 12 law in effect it is formerly known as first year high school. In Israel, in most formal places, the seventh grade is the first year of middle school. In South Africa, Grade 7 is the final year of primary school, it is also the final year before High School as there is no such thing as Middle School in South Africa. Pupils (called Learners by the Department of Education) are usually between the ages of 12 and 13. In Sweden and Finland this is the seventh year of compulsory school and the first year of "junior high". In New Zealand, the equivalent is Year 9 (formerly Form 3). It is the first year of junior high education [Junior high Year 9(13-14) and 10(14-15)] In India, Pakistan and other South Asian Countries, grade seven is called Class Seven and forms middle school. In Singapore, seventh grade is called Secondary One, and is the start of their secondary education, after primary education. In Japan, seventh grade is called junior-high 1st year (中学一年生, short form is 中一), and is the start of secondary education like in Singapore. In Jamaica, seventh grade you start high school. It is the start of secondary education. Also seventh grade is called First Form. In France, seventh grade is called 5ème (5 years before Terminale, where most students take the Baccalauréat)
Eighth (or 8th) grade (capitalized and called Grade 8 in Canada) is a year of education in several nations. Students are usually 13 – 14 years old. The eighth grade is typically the final grade before high school, and the ninth grade of public and private education, following kindergarten and subsequent grades. Eighth grade is usually the third of three grades or the second of two grades of middle school, or the second of three grades or first of two grades in junior high school, although some systems mark it as the final year of elementary school and some as the second year of high school (in Quebec or parts of Australia for example). In the U.S, Eighth Grade is most commonly thought to be a child's eighth year of education. However, for some, 8th Grade may be thought of as a child's 9th, 10th, or, possibly, 11th year of education. Though this depends upon whether or not the child attended Kindergarten and Preschool, and for how many years they attended Preschool (usually, a child attends Preschool for one year, but two years is somewhat common as well). Yet, most disagree to this due to the fact that Preschool and Kindergarten are considered to be years of preparation, rather than actual education. In some parts of Canada (such as Newfoundland), and much of British Columbia, 8th grade is the first year of high school/secondary school. In Quebec, eighth Grade is equivalent to Secondary II (French: 2e Secondaire ("Seconde")) or Secondary Cycle 1, Year 2. The eighth grade mathematics curriculum in Canada and the United States usually includes either Pre-algebra or Algebra I. Occasionally, Geometry and/or Algebra II are also taught in very advanced schools. In some schools, especially the ones that are witnessing the required Basic Standards Test, basic everyday "real world" mathematical skills such as check writing, money management, and geometry are taught as well. In cultural and language curriculum, many students may opt to take a foreign language course, either for a semester or the full school year. In the United States, U.S. history is often the primary focus in eighth grade social studies. In India 8th grade is the last grade before High Schools. In Pakistan, grade eight is one of the years in middle school. Students in this class are thirteen to fourteen years old. In the Philippines, where a 10-year education program is in use, the equivalent of the eighth grade is the first year of high school. Students in this class are 13–14 years old. Now with K to 12 in effect it is formerly known as 2nd Year High School. In Singapore, it is equivalent to Secondary 2. It is the second year of Secondary school, which has 4 to 5 years - depending on which system a student is in- in total. In Malaysia,8th grade also known as form 2 in the secondary school. The students at this stage is aged 14 years old. It is the second year in the secondary school. In most states in Australia, eighth grade is the equivalent of Year 8, which is the second year of high school. In Queensland and Western Australia, Year 8 is the first year of high school. In New Zealand, eighth grade is equivalent to Year 9 (formerly Form 3); for the majority of students, this is the first year of secondary school. Other systems to group the grades are also present: some students enter into an intermediate secondary school earlier than this, at Year 7; others stay in the same school for their entire education, as in composite or area schools. In Jamaica, eighth grade is called second form which is still in high schools in Jamaica
A kindergarten (from German , literally "children's garden") is a preschool educational institution for children. The term was created by Friedrich Fröbel for the play and activity institute that he created in 1837 in Bad Blankenburg as a social experience for children for their transition from home to school. His goal was that children should be taken care of and nourished in "children's gardens" like plants in a garden. The term kindergarten is used around the world to describe a variety of different institutions that have been developed for children ranging from the ages of two to seven, depending on the country concerned. Many of the activities developed by Fröbel are also used around the world under other names. Singing and growing plants have become an integral part of lifelong learning. Playing, activities, experience, and social interaction are now widely accepted as essential aspects of developing skills and knowledge. In most countries, kindergartens are part of the preschool system of early childhood education. In the United States, as well as in parts of Australia, such as New South Wales, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory, kindergarten is the word often restricted in use to describe the first year of education in a primary or elementary school. In some of these countries, it is compulsory; that is, parents must send children to their kindergarten year (generally, at age five by September 1 of the present school year). In other parts of Australia, the term 'preps' is used for compulsory pre-school, and kindergarten (or 'kinder') refers to regulated day-care for 3- and 4-year-old children. In the United States, many states widely offer a free kindergarten year to children of five to six years of age, but do not make it compulsory, while other states require all five-year-olds to enroll. The terms preschool or, less often, "Pre-K" (formerly nursery school) are used to refer to a school for children who are not old enough to attend kindergarten. Also, some U.S. school districts provide a half day or full day kindergarten at the parents' election. In British English, nursery or playgroup is the usual term for preschool education, and kindergarten is rarely used, except in the context of special approaches to education, such as Steiner-Waldorf education (the educational philosophy of which was founded by Rudolf Steiner). In an age when school was restricted to children who had learned to read and write at home, there were many attempts to make school accessible to the children of women who worked in factories. In Scotland in 1816, Robert Owen, a philosopher and pedagogue, opened the first infant school in New Lanark. In conjunction with his venture for cooperative mills Robert Owen wanted the children to be given a good moral education so that they would be fit for work in the mills of New Lanarck. The system that he set up was successful in producing obedient and conforming children who had been taught basic literacy and numeracy skills. Another was opened by Samuel Wilderspin in London in 1819. His work provided the model for infant schools throughout England. In 1823 he published his influential work On the Importance of Educating the Infant Poor, based on his experiences at the school. He began working for the Infant School Society the next year, informing others about his views on education. He also wrote "The Infant System,for developing the physical, intellectual, and moral powers off all children from 1 to seven years of age". Play was an important part of Wilderspin's system of education, and he is credited with the invention of the playground. Countess Theresa Brunszvik (1775–1861) was influenced by this example to open an Angyalkert (Angel garden) on May 27, 1828 in her residence in Buda. This concept became popular among the nobility and the middle class and was copied throughout the Hungarian kingdom. Friedrich Fröbel (1782–1852) opened a Play and Activity institute in 1837 in the village of Bad Blankenburg in principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Thuringia, which he renamed Kindergarten on June 28, 1840 to mark the four-hundredth anniversary of Gutenberg's invention of movable type. The women trained by Fröbel opened Kindergartens throughout Europe and around the World. The first kindergarten in the United States founded in Watertown, Wisconsin, by Margarethe Meyer-Schurz in 1856 was conducted in German. Her sister had founded the first kindergarten in London, England. In some systems kindergarten is called Grade 0, which is also sometimes classified as "a mixture between kindergarten and a school regime." In 1860, Elizabeth Peabody founded the first English-language kindergarten in America in Boston, after visiting Watertown and travelling to Europe. The first free kindergarten in America was founded in 1870 by Conrad Poppenhusen, a German industrialist and philanthropist who settled in College Point, NY, where he established the Poppenhusen Institute, still in existence today. The first publicly financed kindergarten in the United States was established in St. Louis in 1873 by Susan Blow. Elizabeth Harrison wrote extensively on the theory of early childhood education and worked to enhance educational standards for kindergarten teachers by establishing what became the National College of Education in 1886. The first private kindergarten in Canada was opened by the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island in 1870 and by the end of the decade, they were common in large Canadian towns and cities. The country's first public-school kindergartens were established in Berlin, Ontario in 1882 (Central School) and in Toronto in 1883 (Louisa Street Public School). In 1885, the Toronto Normal School (teacher training) opened a department for Kindergarten teaching. In Afghanistan, the equivalent term to kindergarten is (Dari)کودکستان/(Pashto)وړکتون pronounced as Waraktoon (Warak – means child and toon – means place) likewise kudakistan (kudak – means child and stan – means land) and is not part of the actual school system. Children between the age of 3 and 6 attend kindergartens, which are often run by the government. According to law, every government office must have a kindergarten area within it. Early childhood development (ECD) programs address the needs and development of young children from birth to 6 years of age, their families, and their communities. They are multidimensional and designed to support children’s health, nutritional, cognitive, social, and emotional abilities, enabling them to survive and thrive in later years. Reflecting cultural values, they must be deeply rooted within families and communities, blending what are known about environments that enhance optimal child development with an understanding of traditional child-rearing practices that support and/or curtail a child’s development. The goal of the ECD strategy is to help families ensure that their children reach school age, not only healthy and well nourished, but intellectually curious, socially confident, and equipped with a solid foundation for lifelong learning. Develop and implement programs to provide better start in lives to younger age children before their schools (kindergarten) as well as to support school-age children who are out of school and missed their schooling by providing them Non-formal Education and vocational training. ECD programs have a relatively short history in Afghanistan. They were first introduced during the Soviet occupation with the establishment in 1980 of 27 urban preschools, or kodakistan. The number of preschools grew steadily during the 1980s, reaching a high of more than 270 by 1990, with 2,300 teachers caring for more than 21,000 children. These facilities were an urban phenomenon, mostly in Kabul, and were attached to schools, government offices, or factories. Based on the Soviet model, they provided nursery care, preschool, and kindergarten for children from 3 months to 6 years of age under the direction of the Department of Labor and Social Welfare. The vast majority of Afghan families were never exposed to this system, and most of those who were never fully accepted it because it diminished the central role of the family and inculcated children with Soviet values. With the onset of civil war after the Soviet withdrawal, the number of kindergartens dropped rapidly. By 1995, only 88 functioning facilities serving 2,110 children survived, and the Taliban restrictions on female employment eliminated all of the remaining centers in areas under their control. At present, no programs of any size exist, facilities have been destroyed, and trained personnel are lacking. In 2007, there are about 260 Kindergarten offering early year’s stimulation to over 25000 children. It is estimated that 2.5 million Afghan children are less than 6 years of age. A range of both biological and environmental risk factors act synergistically to exert a powerful negative influence on the growth and development of the Afghan child. A mix of religious and tribal customs and beliefs permeates Afghan society, with kinship substituting for government in most areas. Communities are traditionally closely knit with a strong emphasis on the extended family. Roles are clearly defined and central to the social order. Decades of war, massive displacement, and changing power structures caused the collapse of community-support networks and the erosion of the extended family—one of the most basic traditional coping mechanisms. Large numbers of women are widowed and have had to assume unaccustomed and nontraditional roles as family breadwinners. One quarter of all children die before the age of 5 as a result of birth trauma, neonatal tetanus diarrhea, pneumonia, and vaccine-preventable diseases. Iron-deficiency anemia is widespread, affecting half to two-thirds of children under 5 years of age. Large numbers of children are chronically malnourished; 45–59% show high levels of stunting. Half of all girls marry before the age of 18, and many soon after adolescence. Confronted with these interlocking threats to development, children arrive at school unable to take advantage of learning opportunities. It is not surprising that dropout rates are high. Figures from 1999 show that one in four children dropped out of school in grade 2 and almost one in two in grades 3 and 4. In addition to the child’s physical and health status, other factors contributing to high dropout rates are family issues and competing priorities for the child’s time, irregular teacher attendance, subject irrelevance, and poor quality of teaching. At present, no policies deal with early childhood and no institutions have either the responsibility or the capacity to provide such services. In the past, the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs was accountable for kindergartens, nurseries, and crèches, while orphanages fell within the purview of MOE. At present, the Ministries of Education, Labor and Social Affairs, and Women’s Affairs have expressed an interest in overseeing the early childhood sector. As the Government continues to define and restructure ministerial responsibilities, the strengths and limitations of various options, including an inter-ministerial coordination agency, should be carefully considered. While formal structures do not exist, it is not clear whether any informal childcare arrangements exist at the community level other than those provided by family members. As women enter the work force, it is likely that a market for private preschool services will emerge in urban areas. In each state of Australia, kindergarten (frequently referred to as 'kinder' or 'kindy') means something slightly different. In Tasmania, New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, it is the first year of primary school. In Victoria, kindergarten is a form of preschool and may be referred to interchangeably as preschool or kindergarten. In Victoria and Tasmania the phrase for the first year of primary school is called Prep (short for 'preparatory'), which is followed by grade 1. In Queensland, kindergarten is usually an institution for children around the age of 4 and thus it is the precursor to preschool and primary education. The year preceding the first year of primary school education in Western Australia, South Australia or the Northern Territory is referred to respectively as pre-primary, reception or transition. In New Zealand, kindergarten can refer to education in the 2 years preceding primary school, from age 3 to 4. Primary Education starts at age 5. In Bangladesh, the term 'Kindergarten' or 'KG School (Kindergarten School)' is used to refer the schooling of children attend from 3 to 6 years of age. The name of the levels are nursery, shishu(children) etc. But the view of Kinder Garten Education has changed much from previous years. Almost every rural area now have at least one Kinder Garten School now. Most of it are run in Bangla medium. They also follow the text books published by the National Curriculum and Textbook Board (NCTB) with a light modification adding some extra book in syllabus. The grades generally starts from Nursery (sometimes "Play"), "KG" afterwards, ends with the 5th grade. Separately, though, from the National Education System, it's contributing grately to achieve the MDG (Mellennium Development Goal). In Bulgaria, the term detska gradina (деτска градина) refers to the schooling children attend from 3 to 7 (in some cases 6) years of age. The last year of kindergarten is also referred to as preschool. It is elective. The actual school starts as grade 1. In Ontario there are two grades of kindergarten: junior kindergarten and senior kindergarten (referred to as JK and SK). Junior kindergarten begins for children in the calendar year in which they turn four years old. Both kindergarten grades are typically run on a half-day or every-other-day schedule though full day Monday to Friday kindergarten is being introduced. In Ontario, both the senior and junior kindergarten programs, also called the "Early Years", are optional programs. Mandatory schooling begins in Grade One. Within the province of Quebec, junior kindergarten is called prématernelle (which is not mandatory), is attended by 4-year-olds, and senior kindergarten is called maternelle, mandatory by the age of 5, this class is integrated into primary schools. Within the French school system in the province of Ontario, junior kindergarten and senior kindergarten are called maternelle and senior kindergarten is sometimes called jardin d'enfants, which is a calque of the German word Kindergarten. In Western Canada and in Newfoundland and Labrador, there is only one year of kindergarten. After that year, the child begins grade one. The province of Nova Scotia refers to Kindergarten as Primary. In Chile, the term equivalent to Kindergarten is "Educación parvularia", sometimes also called "Educación Preescolar". It is the first level of the Chilean educational system. It meets the needs of boys and girls integrally from their birth until their entry to the Educación Básica (Primary education), without being considered as compulsory. Generally, schools imparting this level, the JUNJI (National Council of Kindergarten Schools) and other private institutions have the following organization of groups or sub categories of levels: In China, the equivalent term to kindergarten is 幼儿园 (yòu ér yuán). The children start attending kindergarten at the age of 2 until they are at least 6 years old. The kindergartens in China generally have the following grades: 1. Nursery/ Playgroup (小班/xiăo bān): 2- to 3-year-old children 2. Lower Kindergarten/ LKG (中班/zhōng bān): 3- to 4-year-old children 3. Upper Kindergarten/ UKG (大班/dà bān): 4- to 5-year-old children 4. Preschool (学前班/xué qián bān): 5- to 6-year-old children Some kindergartens may not have preschool (学前班/xué qián bān). Kindergarten is a day-care service offered to children from age three until the child starts attending school. Kindergarten classes (grade 0) are voluntary and are offered by primary schools before a child enters 1st grade. Two-thirds of established day-care institutions in Denmark are municipal day-care centres while the other third are privately owned and are run by associations of parents or businesses in agreement with local authorities. In terms of both finances and subject-matter, municipal and private institutions function according to the same principles. Denmark is credited with pioneering (although not inventing) forest kindergartens, in which children spend most of every day outside in a natural environment. In Egypt, children may go to kindergartens for two years (KG1 and KG2) between the ages of four and six. In France, pre-school is known as école maternelle (French for "nursery school"). Free maternelle schools are available throughout the country, welcoming children aged from 2 to 6 (although in many places, children under three may not be granted a place). The ages are divided into Grande section (GS: 5 year olds), Moyenne section (MS: 4 year olds), Petite section (PS: 3 year olds) and Toute petite section (TPS: 2 year olds). It is not compulsory, yet almost 100% of children aged 3 to 5 attend. It is regulated by the Ministry of National Education. The German preschool is known as a Kindergarten (plural Kindergärten) or Kita, short for Kindertagesstätte (meaning "children's daycare center"). Children between the ages of 3 and 6 attend Kindergärten, which are not part of the school system. They are often run by city or town administrations, churches, or registered societies, many of which follow a certain educational approach as represented, e.g., by Montessori or Reggio Emilia or "Berliner Bildungsprogramm", etc. Forest kindergartens are well established. Attending a Kindergarten is neither mandatory nor free of charge, but can be partly or wholly funded, depending on the local authority and the income of the parents. All caretakers in Kita or Kindergarten must have a three-year qualified education, or are under special supervision during training. Kindergärten can be open from 7 a.m. to 5 p.m. or longer and may also house a Kinderkrippe, meaning crèche, for children between the ages of eight weeks and three years, and possibly an afternoon Hort (often associated with a primary school) for school-age children aged 6 to 10 who spend the time after their lessons there. Alongside nurseries, there are day-care nurses (called Tagesmutter, plural Tagesmütter – the formal, gender-neutral form is Tagespflegeperson(en)) working independently from any pre-school institution in individual homes and looking after only three to five children typically up to three years of age. These nurses are supported and supervised by local authorities. The term Vorschule, meaning ‘pre-school’, is used both for educational efforts in Kindergärten and for a mandatory class that is usually connected to a primary school. Both systems are handled differently in each German state. The Schulkindergarten is a type of Vorschule. Pre-primary Services in Hong Kong refers to provision of education and care to young children by kindergartens and child care centres. Kindergartens, registered with the Education Bureau, provide services for children from three to six years old. Child care centres, on the other hand, are registered with the Social Welfare Department and include nurseries, catering for children aged two to three, and creches, looking after infants from birth to two. At present, most of the kindergartens operate on half-day basis offering upper, lower kindergarten classes and nursery classes. Some kindergartens operate full-day kindergarten classes too. Child care centres also provide full-day and half-day services with most centres providing full-day services. The aim of pre-primary education in Hong Kong is to provide children with a relaxing and pleasurable learning environment to promote a balanced development of different aspects necessary to a child's development such as the physical, intellectual, language, social, emotional and aesthetic aspects. To help establish the culture of self-evaluation in kindergartens and to provide reference for the public in assessing the quality and standard of pre-primary education, the Education Bureau has developed Performance Indicators for pre-primary institutions in Hong Kong. Commencing in the 2000/01 school year, Quality Assurance Inspection was launched to further promote the development of quality Early Childhood Education. In Hungary kindergarten is called óvoda ('place for caring'). Children attend kindergarten between ages 3–6/7 (they go to school in the year in which they have their 7th birthday). Attendance in kindergarten is compulsory from the age of 5 years. Several kindergartens provide some education (foreign languages, music, etc.) but the children spend most of their time playing. One needs a college education to work in a kindergarten. There are private kindergartens but most of them are funded by their city. In India, pre-school is divided into two stages - Lower Kindergarten (LKG) or Junior Kindergarten (Jr. KG) and Upper Kindergarten (UKG) or Senior Kindergarten (Sr. KG). Typically, an LKG alias Jr. KG class would comprise children three to four years of age, and the UKG alias Sr. KG class would comprise children four to five years of age. After finishing UKG alias Senior kindergarten, a child enters Class 1 or Standard 1 of primary school. Often kindergarten is an integral part of regular schools, though sometimes they are independent units and are often part of a larger chain. The most popular kindergarten chains in India include Eurokids, Applekids, Treehouse etc.But, most popular Kindergarten curriculum is provided by Preschool for child rights. It is also known as nursery school. In Italy pre-school education refers to two different grades: Asili-nido have been settled after a 1971 State Law (L. 1044/1971) and may be ruled either by private or public institutions. Italian asili-nido were originally settled to allow mothers a chance to work out of their home, and therefore were seen as a social service. Today, they have mostly the purpose to help children in growing, communicating and learning. In Italy, much effort has been spent on developing a pedagogical approach to children's care: well known is the so-called Reggio Approach (after the name of Reggio Emilia city, in Emilia-Romagna). Emilia Romagna Region is recognized as a leader for innovative approach to children's education. Asili-nido are normally settled in small one-story buildings, surrounded by gardens; buildings are always small and usually are suitable for no more than 60 or 70 children. The heart of the asili-nido are the classrooms, split in playroom and restroom; the playroom always has windows and doors leading to the outside playground and garden. Maternal schools (Scuola materna) were settled in 1968 after State Law n. 444 and are a full part of Italian official education system, though attendance is not compulsory. As well as asili-nido (nursery schools), maternal schools may be held either by public or private institutions. Early childhood education begins at home, and there are numerous books and television shows aimed at helping mothers & fathers of preschool children to educate their children and to parent more effectively. Much of the home training is devoted to teaching manners, proper social behavior, and structured play, although verbal and number skills are also popular themes. Parents are strongly committed to early education and frequently enroll their children in preschools. Kindergartens (yōchien 幼稚園), predominantly staffed by young female junior college graduates, are supervised by the Ministry of Education, but are not part of the official education system. The 58 percent of kindergartens that are private accounted for 77 percent of all children enrolled. In addition to kindergartens there exists a well-developed system of government-supervised day-care centers (hoikuen 保育園), supervised by the Ministry of Labor. Whereas kindergartens follow educational aims, preschools are predominately concerned with providing care for infants and toddlers. Just as there are public and private kindergartens, there are both public and privately run preschools. Together, these two kinds of institutions enroll well over 90 percent of all preschool-age children prior to their entrance into the formal system at first grade. The Ministry of Education's 1990 Course of Study for Preschools, which applies to both kinds of institutions, covers such areas as human relationships, health, environment, words (language), and expression. Starting from March 2008 the new revision of curriculum guidelines for kindergartens as well as for preschools came into effect. In Jordan and the Palestinian Authority, children may go to kindergartens for two years (KG1 and KG2) between the ages of four and six.][ In South Korea, children normally attend kindergarten between the ages of three or four and six or seven in the Western age system. (Korean children's ages are calculated differently from Western children's ages: when they are born they are one year old, rather than one day old. Also, every January 1, everyone's age increases by one year regardless of when their birthday is. Hence in Korea, kindergarten children are called "five, six and seven" year olds.). The school year begins in March. It is followed by primary school. Normally the kindergartens are graded on a three-tier basis. They are called "Yuchi won" (Korean: ). Korean kindergartens are private schools. Costs per month vary. Korean parents often send their children to English kindergartens to give them a head start in English. Such specialized kindergartens can be mostly taught in Korean with some English lessons, mostly taught in English with some Korean lessons, or completely taught in English. Almost all middle-class parents send their children to kindergarten. Kindergarten programs in South Korea attempt to incorporate much academic instruction alongside more playful activities. Korean kindergarteners learn to read, write (often in English as well as Korean) and do simple arithmetic. Classes are conducted in a traditional classroom setting, with the children focused on the teacher and one lesson or activity at a time. The goal of the teacher is to overcome weak points in each child's knowledge or skills. Because the education system in Korea is very competitive, kindergartens are becoming more intensely academic nowadays. Children are pushed to read and write at a very young age. They also become accustomed to regular and considerable amounts of homework. These very young children may also attend other specialized afternoon schools, taking lessons in art, piano or violin, taekwondo, ballet, soccer or mathematics. In Kuwait, Kuwaiti children may go to free kindergartens for two years (KG1 and KG2) between the ages of four and six. Macedonian equivalent of the kindergarten is детска градинка (detska gradinka), sometimes called забавиште (zabavishte) when the kids are younger than 4 years. Detska gradinka is not part of the state mandatory education, because the educational process in the country begins at the age of 6, i.e. first grade. In Malawi, kindergarten is known as "sukulu ya mkaka ya ana a zaka zinayi mpaka zisanu ndi chimodzi" in the Chichewa national language and as "obuko" in Ciyawo-speaking regions and is generally available to children of ages four and five. Many English kindergartens also operate throughout the country. In Malaysia, kindergarten is known as "tadika". Most kindergarten available to children of ages five and six (and some available to children of ages four). For children of ages three (and some until ages of four), there are Pre-school playgroups for them. There is no fixed rules on when a child needs to go to a kindergarten but majority will when the child turns 5 years old. The child will go to kindergarten usually for 2 years, that is when they are at age 5 and 6, before they proceed to primary school at age 7. In Mexico, kindergarten is called "kindergarten" or "kínder," with the last year sometimes referred to as "preprimaria" (primaria is the name given to grades 1 through 6, so the name literally means "prior to elementary school"). It consists of three years of pre-school education, which are mandatory before elementary school. Previous nursery is optional, and may be offered in either private schools or public schools. At private schools, kinders usually consist of three grades, and a fourth one may be added for nursery. The fourth one is called maternal. It goes before the other three years and is not obligatory. While the first grade is a playgroup, the other two are of classroom education. The kindergarten system in Mexico was developed by professor Rosaura Zapata (1876–1963), who received the country's highest honor for that contribution. In 2002, the Congress of the Union approved the Law of Obligatory Pre-schooling, which already made pre-school education for three to six-year-olds obligatory, and placed it under the auspices of the federal and state ministries of education. In Morocco, pre-school is known as école maternelle, Kuttab, or Ar-Rawd. State-run, free maternelle schools are available throughout the kingdom, welcoming children aged from 2 to 5 (although in many places, children under 3 may not be granted a place). It is not compulsory, yet almost 80% of children aged 3 to 5 attend. It is regulated by the Moroccan department of education. In Nepal, kindergarten is simply known as "kindergarten". Kindergarten is run as a private education institution and all the privately run educational instituitions are in English medium. So, kindergarten education is also in English medium in Nepal. The children start attending kindergarten at the age of 2 until they are at least 5 years old. The kindergartens in Nepal have following grades: 1. Nursery/ Playgroup: 2- to 3-year-old children 2. Lower Kindergarten/ LKG: 3- to 4-year-old children 3. Upper Kindergarten/ UKG: 4- to 5-year-old children The kindergarten education in Nepal is almost similar to that of Hong Kong and India. All the books in private education institution are in English except one compulsory Nepali. In the Netherlands, the equivalent term to kindergarten was kleuterschool. From the mid-19th century to the mid-20th century the term Fröbelschool was also common, after Friedrich Fröbel. However this term gradually faded in use as the verb Fröbelen gained a slight derogatory meaning in everyday language. Until 1985, it used to be a separate non-compulsory form of education (for children aged 4–6 years), after which children (aged 6–12 years) attended the primary school (lagere school). After 1985, both forms were integrated into one, called basisonderwijs (Dutch for primary education). For children under 4 the country offers private, subsidized daycares, Dutch: kinderdagverblijf, which are non compulsory, but nevertheless very popular. In Norway "barnehage" (children's garden) is the term used for children in the ages between 3 months and 6 years of age. The first "barnehager" were founded in Norway in late 19th century. Even if they have existed for 120 years they are not considered part of the education system. They are both publicly and privately owned and operated. The staff, and minimum the manager, should be educated "førskolelærer" (pre-school teacher). The children spend most of the time outdoors. There are also an institution called "barnepark" (children's park), which do not have to certified staff. In Peru, the term nido refers to the schooling children attend from 3 to 6 years of age. It is followed by primary school classes, which last for six years. Some families choose to send their children to primary school at the age of 6. In 1902 the teacher Elvira Garcia and Garcia co-founder of the Society cited above, organized the first kindergarten for children 2 to 8 years old, Fanning annex to the Lyceum for ladies. Her studies and concern for children led her to spread through conferences and numerous documents, the importance of protecting children early and to respond to the formation of a personality based on justice and understanding, as well as the use of methods Fröbel and from Montessori and participation of parents in this educational task. In the Philippines, education officially starts at the Elementary level and placing children into early childhood education through kindergarten is optional to parents. Early Childhood Education in the Philippines are classified into: Early childhood education is strengthened through the creation of Republic Act No. 8980 or the Early Childhood Care and Development Act of 2000. In 2011, the Department of Education disseminated copies of the Kindergarten Education Act through Republic Act No. 10157 making it compulsory and mandatory in the entire nation. As provisions in this law, children under five years old will be required to enroll in the kindergarten in any public elementary in the country. This goes with the implementation of the K-12 system in the Basic Education Curriculum. In Romania, grădiniţă, which means "little garden" is the favored form of education for preschool (under-6 or under-7) children. The children are divided in "little group" (grupa mică age 3–4), "medium group" (grupa mijlocie age up to 5) and "big group" (grupa mare up to 6 or 7). In the last few years, private kindergartens have become popular, supplementing the state preschool education system. In the Russian Federation Детский сад (literal translation of a children's garden) is an Education Institution for children usually 3 to 6 years of age. It is a Дошкольное образовательное учреждение (preschool educational institution). Kindergartens in Singapore provide up to three years of pre-school programs for children aged between three and six. The three-year program, known as nursery, kindergarten 1 (K1) and kindergarten 2 (K2) prepares children for their first year in primary school education. Some kindergartens further divide nursery into N1 and N2. Kindergarten in Sudan is divided into private and public kindergarten. Preschool is compulsory in Sudan. The proper Kindergarten age spans from 3–6 years. The curriculum covers Arabic, Religion, English, Mathematics and more. Kindergartens and preschool While many public kindergartens and preschools exist in Taiwan, private kindergartens and preschools are also quite popular. Many private preschools offer accelerated courses in various subjects to compete with public preschools and capitalize on public demand for academic achievement. Curriculum at such preschools often encompasses subject material such as science, art, physical education and even mathematics classes. The majority of these schools are part of large school chains, which operate under franchise arrangements. In return for annual fees, the chain enterprises may supply advertising, curriculum, books, materials, training, and even staff for each individual school. There has been a huge growth in the number of privately owned and operated English immersion preschools in Taiwan since 1999. These English immersion preschools generally employ native English speaking teachers to teach the whole preschool curriculum in an ‘English only’ environment. The legality of these types of schools has been called into question on many occasions, yet they continue to prosper. Some members of Taiwanese society have raised concerns as to whether local children should be placed in English immersion environments at such a young age, and have raised fears that the students abilities in their mother language may suffer as a result. The debate continues, but at the present time, the market for English Immersion Preschools continues to grow. In 2010 a total of 56% of children aged one to six years old had the opportunity to attend preschool education, the Education and Science Ministry of Ukraine reported in August 2010. Many preschools and kindergarten where closed previously in light of economic and demographic considerations. The term kindergarten is rarely used in Britain to describe pre-school education; pre-schools are usually known as nursery schools or playgroups. However, the word "kindergarten" is used for more specialist organisations such as forest kindergartens, and is sometimes used in the naming of private nurseries that provide full-day child care for working parents. In the UK children have the option of attending nursery at the ages of three or four years, before compulsory education begins. Before that, less structured childcare is available privately. The details vary slightly between Scotland, England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Some nurseries are attached to state infant or primary schools, but many are provided by the private sector. The government provides funding so that all children from the age of three until they start compulsory school, can receive five sessions per week of two and a half hours each, either in state-run or private nurseries. Working parents can also spend £55 per week free of income taxes, which is typically enough to pay for one or two days per week. The Scottish Government defines its requirements of nursery schools in the Early Years Framework and the Curriculum for Excellence. Each school interprets these with more or less independence (depending on their management structure), but must satisfy the Care Commission in order to retain their licence to operate. The curriculum aims to develop: Nursery forms part of the Foundation Stage of education. In the 1980s England and Wales officially adopted the Northern Irish system whereby children start school either in the term or year in which they will become five depending on the policy of the Local Education Authority. In Scotland, schooling becomes compulsory between the ages of 4½ and 5½ years, depending on their birthday (school starts in August for children who were 4 by the end of the preceding February). The first year of compulsory schooling is known as Reception in England, Dosbarth Derbyn in Welsh and Primary One in Scotland and Northern Ireland. In the United States, kindergartens are usually part of the K-12 educational system. It is only one school-year. Children usually attend kindergarten around age 5 to 6. Kindergarten is considered the first year of formal education, although the child may have gone to preschool or Pre-K (formerly nursery school). While kindergarten was viewed as a separate part of the elementary program, it is now fully integrated into the school system and is a full participant in schooling, except that in many places it is only offered for half-a-day. Depending on the state, children may be required to attend their kindergarten year because compulsory schooling laws in many states begin at age 5. In other states, compulsory laws begin at 6 or 7, although these states still offer free kindergarten. In practice, 43 states require their school districts to offer a kindergarten year. Compulsory schooling laws were adopted before the widespread provision of kindergarten or preschool. In some states, it is not required for children to attend kindergarten. Mandatory age of enrollment varies by state between 5 and 8. Generally, in all states, a child may begin kindergarten in the fall term only if age 5 by a state-set date, usually in the summer or fall. If they are older than 5 in a non-mandatory state, then they will be directly placed into first grade for compulsory education, even if they have not attended kindergarten. The following reading list relates specifically to kindergarten in North America, where it is the first year of formal schooling and not part of the pre-school system as it is in the rest of the world:
Sixth grade (called Grade 6 in some regions) is a year of education in many nations. In Senegal, it would correspond to 6ème Lycee. It's the first grade of the third cycle called "Collège" (French) In Morocco, it would correspond to the sixth and the last year of elementary school, it's the last year before middle school. In Pakistan, Bangladesh and India, Sixth grade is called Class 6. In Singapore, the equivalent is Primary 5 or Primary 6, as the Singapore academic year starts in January, unlike in Europe, Canada, and the United States where it starts in September. Average students start learning Algebra, Statistics/Data Analysis. For English, students learn English grammar. For Science classes, students learn about Biology, Chemistry and Physics as diverging branches of Science. Advanced students in "special classes", known as SAP, start learning Trigonometry and Advanced Algebra. For English, students start learning to write short stories, exploration of Shakespeare, etc. For Science classes, students learn about agricultural contamination, industrial pollution and the origin of species (evolution). In Forensics, students begin learning about the different types of evidence and fundamental ballistics, as well as other diverging branches of Forensics. Gifted Education Programme (GEP) students start learning the History of Mathematics, and Applications of Complex Algebra and Trigonometry in industrial circumstances. For English, GEP students start to learn writing their own novels, poetry and documentaries. For Science classes, students are encouraged to develop their own software applications such as iPhone apps. GEP students also learn about the origin of the Empiricism in Science with the advent of European Enlightenment. In China, 6th grade would be the first year of middle school. in Europe,(England/ united kingdom) is known as year 7, the first year in secondary school (of ages 11–12) In Finland, equivalent is grade 6 (ages 13–16). Sixth grade is the last grade before students start attending Middle School. In France, it would correspond to 6ème (6 years before end of high school) which is the first year of middle school. In Germany, it would be equivalent to 6. Klasse. In the Republic of Ireland, the equivalent is 6th Class or Rang a sé which is the eighth and final year of Primary School. In Malta, 6th grade is equivalent to Form 1 age of 11-12. This is the first year where students have different teachers for each subject but most schools have the same classroom for most of the subjects(such as Mathematics, English, Italian, French, science, Maltese etc.). This is the first year of secondary school. In the Netherlands its equivalent to "groep 8", the 8th year of elementary school. In Portugal, the sixth grade (sexto ano, 6º ano) is the second year of the two-year 2º Ciclo do Ensino Básico that includes also the fifth grade. Starting with the school year of 2011/2012, students take final exams (provas finais) at the end of the sixth grade. In Sweden 6th grade is called Sjätte klass (6th class) Usually the kids in 6th class are 12 years old. Its English and Welsh equivalent is Year 7, the first year of secondary school in most counties. Its Northern Irish equivalent is First Form or Year 8, which is also the first year of secondary school. The Scottish equivalent is S1, which is the first year of Secondary school. In Canada, they start sexual education. Learning about puberty helping them later in life. Also lightly learning about drugs, bullying/ cyber-bullying. In some parts of Ontario students are in a program specifically for drugs and types of bullying. This program is named V.I.P. (V.values; I. influences; P. peers). Grade 6 students in Ontario do a provincial test EQAO. For students in French immersion their whole test is written in English. Where in Third grade their math portion was in French. In many schools, children are either beginning middle school or their last year of elementary school. The sixth grade is the sixth school year after kindergarten. Students are usually 11–12 years of age. There is no clear consensus across the United States on whether to include sixth grade as the last year in elementary school, or as the first year of middle school. This can even be seen at the local level, where adjacent districts can differ on what level sixth grade occupies.][ Students usually have different teachers for each subject, normally with 5-6 subjects which should include social studies, math, science, reading, and writing. Sometimes reading and writing are combined to form language arts. Sixth graders often have lockers in the United States. In Australia, Sixth grade is the last or second last year of Primary School, however in Australia it is more commonly called "Year 6". In New Zealand, it is considered Year 7, the first year of intermediate school. The nomenclature for all school grades in Brazil, including Sixth, was recently changed. In that sense, sixth grade (ages 11 and 12) corresponds now to Brazil's seventh grade. Student
In education systems where children receive three levels of schooling, a middle school is a school which educates them after they have finished their first school and before they commence the last. Middle schools generally cover between the fourth or fifth year of schooling up to the eighth or ninth year, although this may vary. The education delivered by middle schools is usually considered a part of secondary education, but in some education systems may be primary education or a mix of the two. In some areas, junior high school fulfills the same function as a middle school. In Algeria, a middle school includes grades 5 through 8, consisting of students from ages 10 or 11 to 14. In Egypt, middle school precedes high school. It is called the preparatory stage and consists of three phases: first preparatory in which students study more subjects than primary with different branches. For instance, algebra and geometry are taught instead of "mathematics." In the second preparatory phase, students study science, geography, the history of Egypt starting with pharaonic history, including Coptic history, Islamic history, and concluding with modern history. The students are taught three languages. Arabic is obligatory. Two others are chosen as first and second languages: English, French, German, Spanish, or Italian. Middle school (preparatory stage) lasts for three years.][ In Somalia, middle school identified as intermediate school is the four years between secondary school and primary school. Pupils start middle school from form as referred to in Somalia or year 5 and finish it at year 8. Students start middle school from the age of 11 and finish it when they are 14-15. Subjects, which middle school pupils take are: Somali, Arabic, English, Religion, Science, Geography, History, Maths, Textiles, Art and Design, Physical Education (PE) and sometimes Music. In some middle schools, it is obligatory to study Italian. In Tunisia and Morocco, a middle school includes grades 7 through 9, consisting of students from ages 12 to 15. In Afghanistan, middle school consists of 6, 7 and 8 grade. When the Taliban controlled a majority of the country, between 1996 and 2001, girls were not allowed to attend public school. Since 2001, both boys and girls are required to attend school by the government, where it has control. But the Taliban insurgents continue to attack and burn down schools in the countryside which they deem secular threatening Taliban ideology. In Saudi Arabia, middle school includes grade 7 through 9, consisting of students from ages 12 to 15. In the People's Republic of China, middle school has two stages, junior stage (grades 7-9, some places are grades 6-9) and senior stage (grades 10-12). The junior stage education is the last 3 years of 9-year-compulsory education for all young citizens; while the senior stage education is optional but considered as a critical preparation for college education. Some middle schools have both stages while some have either of them. The admissions for most students to enroll in senior middle schools from junior stage are on the basis of the scores that they get in "Senior Middle School Entrance Exam", which are held by local governments. Other students may avoid the exam, based on their distinctive talents, like athletics, or excellent daily performance in junior stage. In Iran, middle school is considered as a 3 years period, grades 6, 7 and 8. It is called guidance school (راهنمایی: Persian). This term refers to the fact that students are guided to sufficient information in this school in order to be able to select a focus on in high school: mathematics, natural sciences, social sciences, etc. In Lebanon, middle school consists of grades 7, 8, and 9. At the end of 9th grade, the student is given the National diploma examination. CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education) classifies Middle School as a combination of Lower (Class 1 - 5) and Upper Primary (Class 5 - 8). There are other Central Boards / Councils such as CISCE (Council for the Indian School Certificate Examination). Each state has its own State Board. Each has its own standards, which might be different from the Central Boards. In some institutions, providing education for 5th to 10th are known as secondary school. In South Korea, a middle school is called a jung hakgyo (Hangul: 중학교; Hanja: 中學校) which includes grades 7 through 9 (referred to as: middle school 1st–3rd grades; approx. age 13-15). In Indonesia, middle school covers ages 12 to 15 Although compulsory education ends at junior high, most pursue higher education. There are around 22,000 middle schools in Indonesia with a balanced ownership between public and private sector. In Israel, middle school consists of grades 7, 8 and 9. Several cities have no middle school. There, elementary schools consist of grades 1-8. Junior high schools (Three years from 7th to 9th grade) in the Republic of China (Taiwan) were originally called "primary middle school". However, in August 1968, they were renamed "nationals' middle school" often translated "junior high") when they became free of charge and compulsory. Private middle school nowadays are still called "primary middle school". Taiwanese students older than twelve normally attend junior high school. Accompanied with the switch from junior high to middle school was the cancellation of entrance examination needed to enter middle school. In Malaysia, pre-schools (Kindergarten) are meant for children from 5–6 years old. 7–12 year old kids attend Primary School/Elementary School from Standard 1 to Standard 6. There are three types of schooling depending on the child's spoken language: Malay, Mandarin, and Tamil. 13–17 year old students study in secondary school/high school. These schools are numbered from Form 1 to Form 5. There is also an optional Form 6 (Pre-university or A level equivalent). This is divided into Lower Form 6 and Upper Form 6. Students may choose to study other equivalent courses instead of taking Form 6 classes. Form 1 to 3 students are called lower secondary students and Form 4 to 6 are called upper secondary students. There are three major exams: 1) Standard 6. 5 Subjects for Malay Schools(government school) and 7 subjects for Chinese and Tamil Schools (non-government schools), 2) Form 3. 7 subjects for non-Muslim students and 8 subjects for Muslim students, and 3) Form 5. O level equivalent -subjects varying, according to the elective and extra subjects chosen by the students.][ In Pakistan, the Middle School is a combination of Lower (Class 1 - 5) and Upper Primary (Class 5 - 8). In some institutions, providing education for 5th to 10th are known as secondary school. Most regions of Australia do not have middle schools, as students go directly from primary school to secondary school. As an alternate to the middle school model, some secondary schools divided their grades into Junior High School (Years 7 to 10) and Senior High School (Years 11 and 12). An example of this is McCarthy Catholic College - originally named Our Lady of the Rosary College, established in 1981. In 1996 and 1997, a national conference met to develop what became known as the National Middle Schooling Project, which aimed to develop a common Australian view of The first middle school established in Australia was The Armidale School, in Armidale (approximately 570 km north of Sydney, 470 km south of Brisbane and approximately 170 km inland from the coast). Schools have since followed this trend, such as The King's School. As of 2007[update], the Northern Territory has introduced a three tier system featuring Middle Schools for years 7–9 (approx ages 12–15) and high school year 10–12. (approx ages 15–18) Many schools across Queensland have introduced a Middle School tier within their schools. The middle schools cover the grades/years 5 to 8. On the Gold Coast, Upper Coomera State College (Prep-12) has three sub-schools; Junior School (Prep-6), Middle School (7–9) and Senior School (10–12). Currently in Brisbane, Queensland, students do not go to middle school. Primary School covers preschool to year 7 (ages 5–12), and high school covers years 8 to 12 (ages 13–17.) In New Zealand intermediate schools cover years 7 to 8 (formerly known as Forms 1 to 2, with children generally aged between 10 and 13). There are full primary schools which also contain year 7 and 8 with students continuing to high school at year 9/Form 3. Some high schools also include years 7 and 8.][ In the last decade there has been an increased interest in middle schooling (years 7-10) with at least seven schools offering education to this age group opening around the country in both Auckland, Cambridge, Hamilton, Christchurch and Upper Hutt.][ In the countries of former Yugoslavia, srednja/средно škola/šola/училиште (literally translated as Middle School) refers to age between 14 and half – 15 and 18, and lasts 3–4 years, following elementary school (which lasts 8 or 9 years). The final four years of elementary school are actually what would be called junior high school in USA. Students have up to 12–15 different subjects in each school year (most of them only two 45-minute class periods per week). For example 7th and 8th grade students do not have one subject called Science but three separate subjects called Chemistry, Physics and Biology. In France, the equivalent period to middle school is collège, which lasts four years from the Sixième (sixth, the equivalent of the Canadian and American Grade 6) to the Troisième (third, the equivalent of the Canadian and American Grade 9), accommodating pupils aged between 11 and 15. Upon completion of the latter, students are awarded a Brevet des collèges if they obtain a certain amount of points on a series of tests in various subjects (French, history / geography, mathematics) and oral examinations (history of arts). They can then enter high school (called lycée), which lasts three years from the Seconde to the Terminale until the baccalauréat, and during which they can choose a general or a professional field of study. There are four middle schools in Gibraltar, following the English model of middle-deemed-primary schools accommodating pupils aged between 8 and 12 (National Curriculum Years 4 to 7). The schools were opened in 1972 when the government introduced comprehensive education in the country. In Italy the equivalent is the "middle lower school" (Scuola Media Inferiore), commonly shortened to "middle school" (Scuola Media) as the "Scuola Media Superiore", the equivalent of high school, is just commonly called "Superiore". It lasts three years from the student age of 11 to age 14. Since 2009, after "Gelmini reform", the middle school was renamed "Scuola Secondaria di primo grado" ("junior secondary school"). Middle school in Poland, called gimnazjum, was first introduced in 1932. The education was intended for pupils of at least 12 years of age and lasted 4 years. Middle schools were part of the educational system until the reform of 1947, except during World War II (1939–1945). The middle schools were reinstated in Poland in 1999 now lasting 3 years after 6 years of primary school. Pupils entering gimnazjum are usually 13 years old. Middle school is compulsory for all students, and it is also the final stage of mandatory education. In the final year students take a standardized test to evaluate their academic skills. Higher scorers in the test are allowed first pick of school if they want to continue their education, which is encouraged. In Portugal, the middle school is known as 2nd and 3rd cycles of basic education (2º e 3º ciclos do ensino básico). It comprises the 5th till 9th year of compulsory education, for children between ten and fifteen years old. After the education reform of 1986, the former preparatory school (escola preparatória) or liceu, became part of basic education (educação básica). Basic education now includes: ""10th year"" (15–16 years old) 11th year (16–17 years old) Middle school in Romania and Bulgaria, or gymnasium, includes grades 5 to 8. At the end of the eighth grade students take an exam that counts for 50% of the average needed to enroll in high school.][ In the United Kingdom, some English Local Education Authorities introduced middle schools in the 1960s and 1970s. The notion of Middle Schools was mooted by the Plowden Report of 1967 which proposed a change to a three-tier model including First schools for children aged between 5 and 8, Middle Schools for 8–12 year-olds, and then upper or high schools for 12–16 year-olds. Some authorities introduced Middle Schools for ideological reasons, in line with the report, while others did so for more pragmatic reasons relating to the raising of the school leaving age in compulsory education to 16, or to introduce a comprehensive system. Different authorities introduced different age-range schools, although in the main, three models were used: In many areas primary school rather than first school was used to denote the first tier. In addition, some schools were provided as combined schools catering for pupils in the 5–12 age range as a combined first and middle school. Around 2000 middle and combined schools were in place in the early 1980s. However, that number began to fall in the later 1980s with the introduction of the National Curriculum. The new curriculum's splits in Key Stages at age 11 encouraged the majority of Local Education Authorities to return to a two-tier system of Primary (sometimes split into Infant schools and Junior schools) and Secondary schools. There are now fewer than 200 middle schools still operational in the United Kingdom, meaning that approximately 90% of middle schools have closed since 1980. Under current legislation, all middle schools must be deemed either primary or secondary. Thus, schools which accept pupils up to age 12 are titled middle-deemed-primary, while those accepting pupils aged 13 or over are titled middle-deemed-secondary. For statistical purposes, such schools are often included under primary and secondary categories "as deemed". Notably, most schools also follow teaching patterns in line with their deemed status, with most deemed-primary schools offering a primary-style curriculum taught by one class teacher, and most deemed-secondary schools adopting a more specialist-centred approach. Some middle schools still exist in various areas of England. They are supported by the National Middle Schools' Forum. A list of middle schools in England is available. In Scotland a similar system was trialled in Grangemouth middle schools, Falkirk between 1975 and 1987. The label of junior high school is used for some through schools in Orkney and Shetland which cater for pupils from 5 up to the age of 14, at which point they transfer to a nearby secondary school. In the Craigavon area of Northern Ireland, the Dickson Plan operates, whereby pupils attend a primary school from ages 4–10, a junior high school from 11-14, and a senior high school or grammar school from 14-19. This is not dissimilar to the middle school system.][][ Middle school and junior high school are both used, depending on what grades the school caters to. Junior highs tend to only include grades 7, 8, and 9 (some older schools with the name carved in concrete, still use "junior high," as part of their name, although grade nine is now missing), whereas middle schools are usually grades 6-8 or only grades 7 and 8 (i.e. around ages 11–14), varying from area to area and also according to population vs. building capacity. Another common model is grades 5–8. Alberta, Nova-Scotia, and Prince Edward Island junior high schools (the term "middle school" is not commonly used) include only grades 7-9, with the first year of high school traditionally being grade 10. In Mexico, the middle school system is called Secundaria and usually comprises three years, grades 7–9 (ages: 7: 12-13, 8: 13-14, 9: 14-15). It is completed after Primaria (Elementary School, up to grade 6: ages 11–12.) and before Preparatoria/Bachillerato (High School, grades 10–12). Historically, in the United States, local public control (and private alternatives) have allowed for some variation in the organization of schools. Elementary school includes kindergarten through fifth grade or sixth grade. Basic subjects are taught in elementary school, and students often remain in one classroom throughout the school day, except for physical education, library, music, and art classes. There are (as of 2001) about 3.6 million children in each grade in the United States. "Middle school" usually includes sixth, seventh and eighth grade. "Junior high" typically includes seventh, eighth and ninth grades. The range defined by either is often based on demographic factors, such as an increase or decrease in the relative numbers of younger or older students, with the aim of maintaining stable school populations. At this time, students are given more independence, moving to different classrooms for different subjects, and being allowed to choose some of their class subjects (electives). Usually, starting in ninth grade, grades become part of a student’s official transcript. The middle school format has now replaced the junior high format by a ratio of about ten to one in the United States, but at least two school districts had integrated both systems in 2010. The "junior high school" concept was introduced in 1909, in Columbus, Ohio. In the late 19th century and early 20th century most American elementary schools had grades 1 through 8. As time passed, until the 1940s, junior high schools increased quickly. After the 1940s the original model of junior high school began to disappear. Jon Wiles, author of Developing Successful K-8 Schools: A Principal's Guide, said "A major problem for" the original model was "the inclusion of the ninth grade" because of the lack of instructional flexibility due to the requirement of having to earn high school credits in the ninth grade, and that "the fully adolescent ninth grader in junior high school did not seem to belong with the students experiencing the onset of puberty." The new middle school model began to appear in the mid-1960s. Wiles said "At first, it was difficult to determine the difference between a junior high school and a middle school, but as the middle school became established, the differences became more pronounced[...]." Junior high schools were created for the purpose of "bridging the gap between the elementary and the high school," a concept credited to Charles W. Eliot, president of Harvard University. The faculty is organized into academic departments that operate more or less independently of one another. The middle school movement in the United States saw this model as inadequately addressing the intended purpose of transition by maintaining an emphasis on the high school model, as reflected in the "junior high" designation. The middle school concept often involves a group of teachers from different disciplines working as a team with the same group of students of the same grade level, with each teacher teaching a different subject.] [ This format facilitates interdisciplinary units, where part or all of the entire team teaches on the same general topic from the perspective of different disciplines. Students are assigned a homeroom. This is intended to foster as a sense of belonging, for social and emotional support to students transitioning from the usual single classroom in elementary school. Various discussions and activities occur in homeroom.][ In Brazil, middle school is a mandatory stage that precedes High School called "Basic Cycle" consisting of about three to four grades, 5th or 6th to 9th, ages 10 or 11-14. All the schools (Kindergarten to High School) usually are in the same school, so sometimes the middle school starts in 5th grade, sometimes in 6th. In Uruguay, the public middle school consists of two stages, one mandatory called "Basic Cycle" or "First Cycle". This consists of three years, ages 12–13, 13-14 and 14-15, and one optional called "Second Cycle", ages 15–16, 16-17 and 17-18. The Second Cycle is divided into 4 options in the 5th grade: "Human Sciences," "Biological","Scientific" and "Arts". In Venezuela, public middle schools have a different Spanish name than private schools. The school system includes a preparatory year before first grade, so nominal grade levels are offset when compared to other countries. Middle schools are from 7th grade (equivalent to 8th grade US) to 11th grade, which is equivalent to 12th grade. Graduates are eligible for college.][ The Association for Middle Level Education (AMLE), formerly National Middle School Association, was founded in 1973. It now claims over 30,000 members representing principals, teachers, central office personnel, professors, college students, parents, community leaders, and educational consultants across the United States, Canada, and 46 other countries.
Grading in education is the process of applying standardized measurements of varying levels of achievement in a course. Grades can be assigned in letters (for example, A, B, C, D, or F), as a range (for example 1 to 6), as a percentage of a total number correct, as a number out of a possible total (for example out of 20 or 100), or as descriptors (excellent, great, satisfactory, needs improvement). In some countries, all grades from all current classes are averaged to create a grade point average (GPA) for the marking period. The GPA is calculated by taking the number of grade points a student earned in a given period of time divided by the total number of credits taken. The GPA can be used by potential employers or educational institutions to assess and compare applicants. A Cumulative Grade Point Average is a calculation of the average of all of a student's grades for all courses completed so far. Yale University historian George W. Pierson writes "According to tradition the first grades issued at Yale (and possibly the first in the country) were given out in the year 1785, when President Ezra Stiles, after examining 58 Seniors, recorded in his diary that there were 'Twenty Optimi, sixteen second Optimi, twelve Inferiores (Boni), ten Pejores.'" Keith Hoskin argues that the concept of grading students' work quantitatively was developed by a tutor named William Farish and first implemented by the University of Cambridge in 1792. Hoskin's assertion has been questioned by Christopher Stray, who finds the evidence for Farish as the inventor of the numerical mark to be unpersuasive. Stray's article elucidates the complex relationship between the mode of examination (testing), in this case oral or written, and the varying philosophies of education these modes imply, both to teacher and student. As a technology, grading both shapes and reflects many fundamental areas of educational theory and practice. Most nations have individual grading systems unique to their own schools. However, several international standards for grading have arisen recently. There is no GPA for any International Baccalaureate Program. The IB Diploma and IB MYP are summatively graded on a 1 -7 point scale which is criterion referenced with 7 the highest score achievable. Scores are always in whole numbers only. As so, upon completion of the program, the points earned are added together to form a total score which is listed on the student's transcript. Different countries in Asia have a variety of grading scales. Grading scales for some countries in that part of the world are described in this article. Below are the percentages and their grade and GPA equivalents University Until high school, an averaged percentage is provided. A percentage over 80 is considered excellent; between 60-80 is considered to be 'first division'; between 40-60 is considered to be 'second division', though these terminologies and classifications depend on the 'board of education'. Universities here follow Percentage System and 10 point GPA System. The Percentage System works as : Maximum Marks:100, Minimum Marks: 0, Minimum Marks Required for Passing: 35. 100-91% Considered Excellent,75-90% Considered Very Good, 55–64% considered good, 45–55% considered fair, 41–44% considered Pass, 0-40% considered fail. A percentage above 65% is referred as 1st Division and indicates high intellectual level. Some Universities follow weighted average pattern to calculate percentage: 1st and 2nd Semester–40% of the aggregate marks, 3rd and 4th Semester-60% of the aggregate marks, 5th and 6th Semester-80% of the aggregate marks, 7th and 8th Semester-100% of the aggregate marks. The 10 point GPA is categorized as follows: 10-9.1 (O ( out of standing ) or A+)- Best, 9-8.1(A)-Excellent, 8-7.1(B+)-exceptionally good, 7-6.1(B)-very good, 6-5.1(C+)- good, 5-4.1(C)- average, 4-3.1(D+)-fair,3.1-2(D)- Pass,2-0(E+-E)-fail. A GPA of over 7 is generally considered to be an indication of a strong grasp of all subjects. The highest score receivable at schools and universities is 100. Depending on the school and the grade of study, a good mark varies, but in most occasions 75 or higher is considered to be a good one. In schools, grades are based on 20. Depending on the school and the grade of study, a good mark varies, but in most occasions 16 or higher is considered to be a good one. This system of grading based on 20 is also common in universities, but sometimes percent scoring is also used in higher educational systems. Most of the Primary, middle and high schools in Iraq grade out of 100 percent with a passing grade of 50 percent, So the grade point average is out of 100. Most of the post-secondary institutions (Universities, Colleges, Technical colleges ... etc.) uses the "word" grading system described below: The 100-point grading scale is as follows: In Japan, most higher education institutions give grades on a scale from 0–100, but a few universities apply letter grades. While for years an "A" grade range was from 80 to 100 points, some schools (for example, at Kurume University) have started to give the 90 to 100 point range a special grade to indicate excellence. A failing grade is generally called an "E", though some institutions use "F". According to standardized Credit System accepted in the Republic of Kazakhstan, the measurements of varying levels of comprehension in the realm of Higher Education in the Republic Kazakhstan is the following: Kuwait employs a four point grading system and percentages. Kyrgyzstan employs a five point grading system: In Lebanon, most schools use a 0–20 scale where the passing grade is 10 out of 20 or in some cases 12 out of 20. However there's a variety of grading systems used. Some schools that offer the IB (International Baccalaureate) or even Lebanese Bac use the 0–100 scale, 60 being the average score. Some use the American system. However in the typical school offering a Lebanese system, getting high grades is very hard, because teachers do not use the full scale. For instance the highest score one can earn in essay writing in some schools is 14 out of 20. All scores are based out of 20. Yet each subject has a weight for the overall average. This weight is determined by the credit hours. For instance math (6hours/week) x 20 (the base grade) = 120 (weight) Example: Student's grades: (math 13.33/20, English 13.4/20, biology 8.25/20) English: 5 credits x 13.4 = 67 out of possible 100 Math: 6 credits x 13.33 = 79.98 out of possible 120 Biology: 2 credits x 8.25 = 16.5 out of possible 40 Total points earned = 163.48 out of possible 260 Overall Average= 12.575 out of 20 (Considered a good average) U.S. Equivalence
Scale / U.S. Grade Equiv.
14–20 / A
12–13.9 / B+
11–11.9 / B
10.5–10.9 / B−
10.1–10.4 / C+
10 / C
9–9.9 / C−
7.5–8.9 / D
0–7.5 / F However in most universities the American grading system is used. Others use the 0–100 scale where the passing grade is 60 or 70 depending on the course. Yet French system universities use the 0–20 grading scale. Malaysia has its own educational grading system. Different level and institution of education uses different grading scheme. This is an example of grading system practiced in a university in Malaysia. Until high school, an averaged percentage is provided. A percentage over 80 is considered excellent; between 60-80 is considered to be 'first division'; between 40-60 is considered to be 'second division' The Percentage System works as : Maximum Marks:100, Minimum Marks: 0, Minimum Marks Required for Passing: 35. 100-91% Considered Excellent,75-90% Considered Very Good, 55–64% considered good, 45–55% considered fair, 41–44% considered Pass, 0-40% considered fail. A percentage above 65% is referred as 1st Division and indicates high intellectual level. Some Universities follow weighted average pattern to calculate percentage: 1st and 2nd Semester–40% of the aggregate marks, 3rd and 4th Semester-60% of the aggregate marks, 5th and 6th Semester-80% of the aggregate marks, 7th and 8th Semester-100% of the aggregate marks. The 10 point GPA is categorized as follows: 10-9.1 (O ( out of standing ) or A+)- Best, 9-8.1(A)-Excellent, 8-7.1(B+)-exceptionally good, 7-6.1(B)-very good, 6-5.1(C+)- good, 5-4.1(C)- average, 4-3.1(D+)-fair,3.1-2(D)- Pass,2-0(E+-E)-fail. A GPA of over 7 is generally considered to be an indication of a strong grasp of all subjects. Grading Scheme In the old grading system consisting of “Division Scheme”, the range of percentage of marks is as follows: Nowadays most universities of Engineering and Technology follows following grading system ][. Schools have grades from 1–100 starting from the 4th grade on. In Universities both numerical and alphabetical grade systems can be found, it is up to the teacher. Most of the universities and colleges and schools in Saudi Arabia are very similar to United States except the way the grades are said. In other universities in Saudi Arabia such as Imam University , King Saud University, King Abdulaziz University and King Khalid University, the following method is used: Secondary School (13–16 years old) Middle School (7–9th grade)
Points are the student's raw score in midterms and finals (out of 100). High School (10–12th grade) Percentage is the students' relative position among other students taking same subject (100% is the highest, 0% is the lowest). Primary education is free at government run schools. The grading is managed by the Ministry of Education (MOE). However, there are many schools run by expatriates that are equally successful with their own grading system, or an accepted grading system of the country where the schools are affiliated to or share common standards with. At most universities and colleges, the United Arab Emirates' grading system is very similar to the United States' system. The grade scale in Vietnam is from 10 to 1 where 10 is the highest 10 - Excellent 9 - Very good 8 - Good 7 - Acceptable 6 - Satisfactory 5 - Satisfactory 4 - Insufficient 3 - Insufficient 2 - Insufficient 1 - Fail In Austria, grades from 1 to 5 are used. The formalized overall grade in Austria is "pass with distinction" (mit ausgezeichnetem Erfolg bestanden), which is given for excellent performance (average of 1.5 and better, no grade below 3) and "pass" (Bestanden, no grade below 4). If someone is given a "pass with distinction" in his Matura, Diploma and PhD, all curricula absolved in the regular duration time he can have a 'promotio sub auspiciis presidentis rei publicae', (literally "under the auspices of the President of the Republic", meaning that the Federal President will personally attend the graduation ceremony), which is the highest honor in Austria only done by 1 of 2500 graduates (.04%) yearly. In Albania, grades from 1 to 10 are used, with some schools allowing decimals (up to the hundredth digit) and some others only allowing whole numbers. Most universities evaluate classes with two mid exams and a final. The final exam encompasses the whole course syllabus, whereas the mid exams usually review half. In some schools, if the average grade of the two mid exams is equal to or higher than 7.00, the student is able to pass the class without the need to take a final exam (since there are only two exams, some teachers also pass students who average 6.50; others weigh in the decision based on the student's performance in class). An average of less than 4.00 is failing; students who score such an average are not allowed to take the final exam. In high schools, the year is divided into three trimesters and classes are usually yearlong. Students need an average of 6.00 or higher in the three trimestral exams to avoid having to take a final to pass the class. In the event of a student scoring less than 6.00 in the third trimester, he or she would have to take a final exam, regardless of average. This is considered controversial, since the last trimestral exam is not more important than the first two, but the rule stands to prevent students who have already reached the minimum average (e.g., two 10.00 in the first two give a student the lowest possible average of 6.33) from not making an effort during the last three months of the year. In Belgian Universities a scale from 0 to 20 is used on a per subject basis, a weighted average is then computed on scale from 0 to 20, 10 being the passing grade average per subject and 12 for the total(satisfactory). An average of 14(70%) gets you a distinction grade (cum laude), 16(80%) means high distinction (magna cum laude) and an average of 18(90%) yields the highest distinction (summa/maxima cum laude). Belgian secondary schools use a scale from 0 to 100 or even above for (big) exams (50 usually being the passing grade). On report cards, certain schools also give grades on a percentage scale (0 to 100) while others use a 0–10 scale. Those total scores are weighted averages of exams and tests. In Belgian secondary schools, there are 6 years. In the first three years, students have to do exams every term. The scores are usually given in percentages. On the end of the school year, a total average score is given. Colleges use the same scale from 0 to 20 as Belgian Universities, although homework and presence may influence up to 50% or even more of these 20 points (situation as of February 2011[update]). Scaling varies significantly depending on the university or college. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, grades from 5 to 1 are used in primary and secondary education, while grades from 10 to 5 are used at universities. Primary and secondary education grading: University grading: In Bulgaria, the following grade scale is used in schools: For examinations and tests, exact grading is often used and is represented by two positions after the decimal point: Grades as, e.g., Good (3.50), or Excellent (5.75), are common. Every passing grade at or above the .50 mark is prefixed with the term of the higher grade. The minimum is 2.00; grades below 3.00 are failing grades, and the maximum is 6.00. Grades like "Very Good" (5-) and "Average" (3+) are also possible - these are ignored in calculations. Roughly, the Bulgarian grade system can be equated to the American one as the following: 6=A, 5=B, 4=C, 3=D, and 2=F. Also, in accordance with the Australian system, 6=HD, 5=D, 4=Cr, 3=P, and 2=F. The most common formula used in Bulgarian schools is currently Grade=(6* number of correct answers)/ total number of questions. That way if a student has answered 7 out of 10 questions correctly, their mark should be: (6*7)/10=4.20, which is graded as Good 4 or an average performance. In Croatia, the following grade scale is used in schools: At the end of each semester the grades are averaged to form a Grade Point Average (prosječna ocjena), according to this scale: In colloquial Croatian, grades are referred to be their numerical values: jedinica, dvojka, trojka, četvorka, petica. In the Kvarner region of Croatia jedinica is also known as komad or kolac and dvojka is also known as duja. Students with failing grades (1 or F) are allowed to carry those grades throughout the school year, but are required to improve them to passing grades (2 or better) in order to finish the year. Failure to pass one class results in the student being held back a year. In Czech Republic, a five-point grading scale is used in both primary and secondary schools: Plus and minus signs often follow grades in Czech Republic to further differentiate marks. E.g., "2+" corresponding to the US 'B+'. Intervals may also be used, e.g. "2–3" to refer to a grade halfway between 2 and 3. On a university level only grades 1, 2 and 3 are "pass" grades; anything worse than 3 is automatically a failing grade. Some universities adopt six-point scale, 'A' corresponding to the former "1", 'B' to "1–2" etc. The current scale, syv-trins-skalaen ("The 7-step-scale"), was introduced in 2007, replacing the old 13-skala ("13-scale"). The new scale is designed to be compatible with the ECTS-scale. Syv-trins-skalaen consists of seven different grades, ranging from 12 to −3, with 12 being the highest. This new scale remains an "absolute" scale, meaning that, proportions are not taken into consideration. Several systems are in use in different educational institutions in Finland. The "school grade" system has historically been a scale of 0 to 10, but all grades lower than 4 have been discarded. Thus, it is now divided between 4, the failing grade, and 5–10, the succeeding grades. Upper secondary school has same grades for courses and course exams as comprehensive school but matriculation examination grades are in Latin. Universities and vocational institutions use a scale of 0 (fail) and 1–5 (pass), or fail/pass. Some schools e.g. Savon Ammatti- ja Aikuisopisto, uses grading from 0 (fail) and 1-3 (pass). The professor selects which grading scheme is used; short, optional courses typically have pass/fail grades. In France, schools grades typically range from either 0 (worst) to 20 (best) or from 0 (worst) to 10 (best). A mark below the average (10 out of 20 or 5 out of 10, depending on the scale) is usually a fail. For the French National High School Level (baccalauréat), a grade of 8–10 typically gives the right to take an additional oral exam in order to try to improve that average to 10 and pass. A grade between 10 and 12 is a simple pass (without grade) ; between 12 and 14 (more rarely 13–14) the grade is called "assez bien" (rather good) ; 14–16 is called "bien" (good) ; above 16 is "très bien" (very good). An exams jury can award the "Félicitations du Jury" for any mark, though they usually reserve it to a candidate who has achieved 18/20 or more. Grade equivalence between France and the U.S. Grading Scale Scale U.S. Grade Equiv. 14-20 = A ; 12-13.9 = B+; 11-11.9 = B; 10.5-10.9 = B-; 10.1-10.4 = C+; 10 = C; 9-9.9 = C-; 8-8.9 = D; 0-7.9 = F; In Germany, school grades vary from 1 (very good, sehr gut) to 6 (insufficient, ungenügend). In the final classes of German Gymnasium schools that prepare for university studies, a point system is used with 15 points being the best grade and 0 points the worst. The percentage causes the grade can vary from teacher to teacher. The percentages shown in the table are the ones used in the "Oberstufe" (final classes). *this conversion serves as an orientation, as conversions might differ. In Hungary, a five point scale is used since 1950. There is one fail grade: 1 – elégtelen (insufficient). In general, the lower limit of pass is 50% or 60%, or one mark (point) above. The pass grades are 2 – elégséges (sufficient or pass), 3 – közepes (mediocre or satisfactory), 4 – (good) and 5 – jeles (excellent). Beyond the five point scale that is almost exclusively used at the end of the semester at several levels of education (i.e. elementary school, high school, university), during the academic year teacher may use a further detailed scale, especially in the elementary school. A comma sign (, ) after the grade lowers it (pronanciated below, "alá"); an apostrophe ( ’ ) after the grade raises (above, "fölé"); a grade half way between two grades is derived from the lower grade divided by the better grade, like 3/4 ("háromnegyed") that equals to 3.5, 4/5 that is between 4 and 5 etc. Sometimes "5*", five starred ("csillagos ötös") is used for showing outstanding performance throughout the semester. (pass=50%+1 scale) (pass=60% scale) In Iceland, grades from 0 to 10 are used. and 5 is usually the lowest passing grade but in some cases the lowest passing grade can be 4.5. The two government regulated educational qualifications are the Junior Certificate (usually taken at 15/16) and the Leaving Cerficiate (usually taken at between the ages of 17 and 19). Passing or failing the Junior Cert (or any exams in Irish secondary schools), has no bearing on whether or not students can graduate or continue on. For the Leaving Certificate, a points system is used. A maximum of 6 subjects are counted, with a possible 100 points in each subject. In practice, most students take 7 or 8 subjects and their best 6 results are counted. Each subject has 2 or 3 levels: higher, ordinary and foundation. The points are: A candidate can get 20 points for an A1 in foundation level subjects. If he or she achieves any grade less than a B2, which is 5 points, he or she will receive no points. The points system allocates all university places in Ireland for Irish applicants. Irish universities vary in their grading systems. For example, UCD (University College Dublin) awards letter grades and corresponding GPA values similar to the United States system, but 1, 2.1, 2.2 etc. for degrees, while TCD (Trinity College Dublin) awards all grades as 1, 2.1, 2.2 etc. In Italy, high-school grades may vary from 10 (excellent) to 1 (impossible to assess), with the sufficiency being 6. In many high schools (Licei) grades vary within a limited range, between 2 and 8, often with each professor applying his/her own custom, even if the total theoretical interval is always from 1 to 10. When a professor wants to apply a more precise scale, instead of using the full 1–10 scale (which would have made their scale not comparable with that of other professors) they would often insert a plethora of symbols and decimals: the range between 5 and 6 would then be covered, in sequence, by 5+, 5++, 5½, 5/6, 6−−, 6−. Sufficiency starts at 6. As these symbols (except ½) have no clear mathematical value, calculating end-year averages could be somewhat arbitrary; therefore, there has been a push since 2008 with the Gelmini reform to uniform the system to the 0–10 scale. Before this reform, primary and secondary school grades used a different grading scale that expressed an assessment of the pupil's progress: The "discipline grade", assessing a high-school pupil's behavior, used to obey different rules: it was almost always set to 9 by default, with 8 used for less disciplined pupils. 10 is less usual, though it is very much possible these days to receive it. 7 is extremely rare and used to be a failing grade. Recently, there has been a school reform, so now the average grade of a student includes the discipline grade, which now is positive from 6 to 10 as with all subjects, though many schools are not accustomed to this grading system yet. In universities a point system is used for exams, with 30 points being the best grade and 18 the minimum passing grade. This come from the fact that exams were traditionally performed with 3 examiners; each of them had to express his opinion in a 1-10 scale, the final grade was the sum of the singular evaluations. In a 1-10 scale the sufficiency is 6, that is why in a 1-30 scale the minimum grade to pass is 3*6 = 18. Nowadays, the way an exam is performed is up to the professor][ (number of examiners, whether written, oral, or both, etc.), but the traditional grading system remained. Degrees have a similar point system, in which however the highest grade can be 110, 100 or even 70, depending on faculty regulations. A cum laude notation (e lode in Italian) is used as an increasing level of the highest grade for both exams and degrees, in all its levels in case of outstanding performance. The academic grading system in Latvia has recently][ been changed to a ten-point scale,][ where "10" (Latvian: ) is the highest achievable grade, and "1" (Latvian: ) is awarded for extremely poor performance. The minimal passing grade is "4" (Latvian: ), though some universities have a minimum passing grade of "5" (Latvian: ). The absence of any kind of performance is indicated by "nv" (Latvian: 'no assessment possible'); in the past, the mark for absence of work was "0" (Latvian: ). Teachers in lower classes and for minor assignments in higher classes are encouraged to award one of two grades: "i" (Latvian: 'counted') for a passing grade, and "ni" (Latvian: 'not counted') for a failing grade. The grade of 10 is reserved for exceptional achievements. 9 is most commonly used for an USA equivalent of an A. In Lithuania, the grading system has been changed to a 10-point scale since 1995][. Prior to that, Soviet Lithuania had a 5-point grading scale. 10 is the highest achievable grade for an excellent performance and 1 is the lowest. Usually, 1 is written when there is no work present at all (called kuolas in the academic jargon, meaning 'stake'), and most teachers tend to keep 2 the lowest grade and rarely mark work as 1. The minimal grade for passing a subject in school is usually 4. Teachers in lower classes are encouraged to write marks such as lg – labai gerai (very good), g – gerai (good), patenkinamai (sufficient to pass) or nepatenkinamai (insufficient to pass). Some subjects (like Arts, Music, Technology) can be pass-fail grades, having only įsk – įskaityta (passed) or neįsk – neįskaityta (not passed). The same system is used for evaluating students' work in universities. However, the minimal grade to pass is usually 5. In 6th grade, students have a choice of a second foreign language, the choice is French, German or Russian. The first foreign language is (usually) English, but it depends on school. In principal, the grading system in Lithuania is similar to the system used in the Netherlands, Romania or Moldova. Moldova uses a 10-point scale system, 5 being the minimum grade for passing: In the Netherlands, grades from 1.0 up to 10.0 are used, with 1 being worst and 10 being best. This system can correspond to a percentile system (1 means 0–5% correct and 10 means 95–100% correct) but sometimes points are deducted for number of faults on a test (typically, on vocabulary or topographical tests with more than 10 questions, each fault will nonetheless lead to a reduction in score of one. So 2 faults on a 50 question vocabulary test would constitute an 8) . The grades 9 and 10 are hardly ever given on large examinations (on average, a 9 is awarded in only 1.5%, and a 10 in 0.5% of the cases). Generally, either one or two decimal places are predominantly used in secondary and higher education. In primary education, fractions of grades are identified with a + or −, which signifies a quarter (converted to either 0.8 or 0.3 if only one decimal place is used). Thus, a grade of 6.75 (or 6.8) could be written as 7−, whereas a grade of 7+ would count for 7.25 or 7.3. A 5.5 constitutes a pass, whereas 5.4 and below constitute a fail. If no decimal places are used, 6 and up is a pass and 5 and below is a fail; however, in this case of grading in full numbers there exists sometimes "6-", which would officially translate to 5.75, but can be interpreted here as "barely, but just good enough". Roughly, a student scores a 5.5 (pass) when 2/3 (67%) of an exam is correct. If the grade would be a 5.49 and one decimal is used, the 5.49 will be a 5.5, but if no decimals are used (usually at the end of the year) the 5.49 will end up as a 5 which indicates a fail. Depending on the specific university, some students who finish their studies with an average of 8.0 or higher, could get the nomination cum laude (which is comparable with summa cum laude as awarded in Germany and the United States). The grade scale with its labels: In primary school (Barneskole, from age 6 to 13) no official grades are given. However, the teachers write an individual comment or analysis on tests and in the end of every term. Lower secondary school (Ungdomsskole; age 13–16) and upper secondary school (Videregående skole; age 16–19) use a scale running from 1 through 6, with 6 being the highest and 2 the lowest passing grade. For non-final tests and mid-term evaluations the grades are often post fixed with + or − (except 6+ and 1−). It is also common to use grades such as 5/6 or 4/3 indicating borderline grades. However, the grades students get on their diploma (Vitnemål), are single-digit grades 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6. The student's non-weighted grade point average is also given on the Vitnemål. In higher education, according to the ECTS-system, grades for undergraduate and postgraduate examinations are awarded according to a graded scale from A (highest) to F (lowest), with E as the minimum passing grade. The ECTS system was implemented at Norway's universities and colleges in the early 2000s, with most schools having converted to ECTS by 2003. Before 2003, the formerly most common system of grades used at university level was based on a scale running from 1.0 (highest) through 6.0 (lowest), with 4.0 being the lowest passing grade. The way the new Bologna system was introduced implies that students, who had started their studies while the old system still was in effect, will graduate with transcripts containing grades from both systems (i.e. both numbers and letters). An academic year has two semesters, from August to December and from January to June, although exceptions occur. Courses are measured in "studiepoeng" according to the ECTS standard (European Credit Transfer System credits). A normal full-time study progression awards 60 credits (studiepoeng/stp) per year (30 per semester). Most institutions either use a 7.5, 8, 10, 12, 15 or 20 credit block system. The most commonly used system in Polish grade schools is as follows (with usual corresponding score percentages): 'Acceptable' is a passing grade. Grades (especially expressed numerically) might be suffixed with + (plus) or - (minus). On rare occasions the = (double minus) is used, especially as 2= to express the very lowest passing grade. Post-secondary institutions use a different system, usually consisting of the following grades (with usual corresponding score percentages): The scores corresponding to each grade vary greatly from institution to institution and from course to course, but usually a score of 50% or 51% is required to obtain the lowest passing grade (3.0). The notations zal. and nzal. are used when the course only requires attendance and/or is not important (such as sports). In Portuguese primary and middle schools, up until the 9th grade inclusive, the grading system is as follows: From the 10th grade onwards, including tertiary education, a 20-point grading scale is used, with 20 being the highest grade possible and 9.5 the minimum grade for passing. This 20-point system is used both for test scores and grades. The used system in Romanian primary schools is as follows: In secondary schools, high schools, and academic institutions, a 10-point scale is used, 5 being the minimum grade for passing: There is no 0, and 1 is given only for cheating. If a student scores 86%, he will be given a grade of 8.60, which will be rounded to a 9. Most Russian educational institutions use a five-point grading scale: Qualifiers + and – are often used to add some degree of differentiation between the grades: e.g., 4+ is better than 4, but not quite as good as 5−. Grading varies greatly from school to school, university to university, and even teacher to teacher, even for courses that lend themselves to objective marking, such as mathematics and applied sciences. Even though the grades technically range from 1 to 5, 1 is not common and is rarely given for academic reasons—in many cases, a 1 is given as a result of failure to show up for or to complete an exam. A 2 grade usually means that the student showed no or little knowledge in a subject. It may be worth mentioning that 1 is a fairly exotic grade in Russian schools, but it does officially exist. The generally used grades are 2 to 5. Plus (+) and minus (–) modifiers follow the same tendency; they are rarely used in middle school and almost never in colleges or universities. Some institutions and teachers, dissatisfied with the five-point scale, work with various larger ones, but these grading systems are not recognized by the state and require conversion for official use. A considerably more complex grading system has been implemented for the recently introduced Unified state examinations. In this system, a "primary grade" is the sum of points for completed tasks, with each of the tasks having a maximum number of points allocated to it. The maximum total primary grade varies by subject, so that one might obtain a primary grade of 23 out of 37 in mathematics and a primary grade of 43 out of 80 in French. The primary grades are then converted into final or "test grades" by means of a sophisticated statistical calculation, which takes into account the distribution of primary grades among the examinees. This system has been criticized for its lack of transparency. At universities some subjects are graded "Pass/No pass" or "Credit/No Credit" (зачёт/незачёт, pronounced "zachòt/nezachòt"); the rest are typically graded on the five-point scale. The "Pass/No Pass" grades do not have any official numeric representation. When zachòt – (credit- or pass-) type subjects are graded as "Pass/No pass", this represents a student's knowledge of a subject. Each university applies its own standards with respect to the knowledge a student must have in order to pass a subject. Zachòt is about equivalent to a pass mark of 70%. Students in Russia must pass all prescribed courses in order to graduate. Since the word zachòt can be translated variously into English (e.g. as "credit" or "pass"), this notation can create problems for Russian students applying to Western universities. Such grades may confuse Western universities and complicate accurate calculation of students' GPAs in Western systems. Western universities and equivalency organizations usually disregard zachòt, despite the fact that this notation is typically used for about half of a student's course results. Consequently, most western GPA conversions of Russian degrees reflect only part of a candidate's coursework. It should be noted that all course examinations and zachot tests must be passed at the time each is given, as there are no repeats, resits or grade appeals. Hence only those who satisfy all the requirements during the allotted examination period for each semester graduate, leaving a huge number of students behind who in the West would have a chance to resit examinations and even get their grades reconsidered. Furthermore, grades in Russia are determined not only by examination results but also by other criteria such as attendance at lectures, participation in class, term papers and projects, in-class and homework assignments, laboratory reports, presentations, and sometimes even grooming and behavior. All these must be passed during the semester before a 'final examination mark' and final zachot is awarded. Russian degrees do not have composite classifications such as in the British system of First Class, Upper/Lower Second Class, Third Class, Pass, etc. This is because each course is examined independently, students must pass all of them, and they do not add up or contribute to an average grade or 'class'. Another reason is that during the Russian Revolution, social stratification and classification were supposedly abolished in the interest of promoting social equality. Accordingly, all students would be expected to perform at or above the minimum level required to qualify and graduate. Calculation of an aggregate mark or GPA is not considered fair or even possible, as it would be felt to disregard much of a candidate's academic work. The zachòt notation would complicate such calculation, and the final thesis qualifying mark is usually considered as the final result. Students who have shown exceptional academic talent by getting 5's in most of their courses are awarded a 'degree with excellence', which comes in a special red cover. Serbia has the same academic grading system of the Former Yugoslavia. In elementary schools and secondary schools, a five-point grading scale is used: In Slovakia, a five-point grading scale is used in primary and secondary schools: In Spain, schools grades typically range either 0 (worst) to 10 (best). A mark below 5 is usually a fail. These grades are described as follows: Sweden has a grading scheme from A to F. Every grade gives a certain amount of points that the students will use to apply for a gymnasium and university. The "main grades" are F, E, C and A. F is the lowest grade and it's not passable. It gives zero points. E is the lowest grade, it gives 10 points and D is a higher version of E, it gives 12.5 points. C is the middle grade, it gives 15 points and B is the higher version of C, it gives 17.5 points. A is the highest grade, it gives 20 points. Switzerland has a grading scheme from 1 to 6. 6 is the highest and 4 the minimum pass mark. Ukraine introduced a new grading system in autumn 2000, which replaced the existing Soviet grading system. The new system provides grades that lie between 1 and 12 and are matched with the 5-point grade system that was used previously, as presented in the table below. 12 being an equivalent of honors/AP course "A+" in the US, it is usually given only for significant achievements or exceptionally creative work, hence 11 is the grade that would be called A in the United States. In Turkey, grades from 0 to 5 are used. With the exception of Liechtenstein, which uses the Swiss grading system, and Moldova, which uses the Romanian grading system, the majority of European countries create their own academic grading standards. Most involve combinations of the key elements of grading, and all are used to evaluate students' performance on a scale of passing to failing (or comprehending to not comprehending material). Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Mexican schools use a scale from 0 to 10 to measure students' scores. Since decimal scores are common, a scale from 0 to 100 is often used to remove the decimal point. In some Universities, students who fail a subject have the option of taking an extraordinary test (examen extraordinario, often shortened to extra) that evaluates the contents of the entire period. Once the test is finished and the score is assessed, this score becomes the entire subject's score, thus giving failing students a chance to pass their subjects. Those who fail the extraordinary test have two more chances to take it; if the last test is failed, the subject is marked as failed and pending, and depending on the school, the student may fail the entire year. Some private schools (particularly in higher levels of education) require a 70 to pass instead of the regular 60. Grades are often absolute and not class-specific. It may be the case that the top of the class gets a final grade of 79. Curve-adjustment is rare. Grad-level students are usually expected to have grades of 80 or above to graduate. Students in the honor roll are usually those with an overall GPA of 90 or higher upon graduation, and some private universities will award them a "With Honors" diploma. Additionally, in some private universities, the pass scores is higher or lower depending from the kind of studies that are related with (for example, in some universities, in the case of Engineering, the minimum score is 7.3 and for Art Sciences is 8.8) and lower than this score is not acceptable. Conversions from percentile grades to letter grades, by province: In Senior High Schools: In Alberta Post-Secondary Colleges, Technical Institutes, or Universities: There is no universal percentage grade associated with any letter grade in the Province of Alberta and such associations are made by professors or a bell curve. Some universities in Alberta use or have used a 9 point stanine grading scale: 9=A+, 8=A, 7=A−, 6=B+, 5=B, 4=B−, 3=C+, 2=C, 1=D, 0=F. See also the University of Alberta Office of the Registrar. In British Columbia universities: F is a failing grade. The following table is only an approximation; faculties within universities sometimes follow a different system between percentiles and corresponding letter grades. Grade F is the sole failing mark. The University of Manitoba uses a GPA system. GPA is Calculated taking total "points" and divided by school credit hours. In Newfoundland and Labrador Universities: Grade F is the sole failing mark. In most Nova Scotia universities: Grade F (or Grade E) is the sole failing mark. Percentage and grade equivalence The University of Ottawa uses a grade point average system with numbers ranging from 0 to 10 despite many schools using the 12 point system. Official grading system at the University of Ottawa: Letter grade, numerical value, and percentage equivalency In Quebec and New Brunswick universities: This scale is used by at least UQTR. The Université de Montréal scale is similar but goes from A+ to F. Université Laval uses a similar 4.33 scale. UQAM, Concordia University and Université de Sherbrooke uses a 4.3 scale. This scale is much alike many other scales used in Canada. McGill University and the École polytechnique use a 4.0 scale. Université de Sherbrooke scale is from A+ to E. The percent equivalent of each grade and the passing mark can vary. The passing mark in high school and college is 60%. The University of Saskatchewan and University of Regina both use a percentage grade system, universal across faculties and departments. The most popular grading system in the United States uses discrete evaluation in the form of letter grades. Many schools use a GPA (grade-point average) system in combination with letter grades. There are also many other systems in place. Some schools use a scale of 100 instead of letter grades. Others, including many Montessoris, eschew discrete evaluation in favor of pure discursive evaluation. There is no standardized system of grading in the United States. As such, those issues are left up to individual universities, schools and the regulatory authority of the individual states. At most schools, colleges and universities in the United States, letter grades follow a five-point system, using the letters A, B, C, D and E/F, with A indicating excellent, C indicating average and E/F indicating failing. Additionally, most schools calculate a student's grade point average (GPA) by assigning each letter grade a number and averaging those numerical values. Generally, American schools equate an A with a numerical value of 4.0. Most graduate schools require a 3.0 (B) average to take a degree, with C or C- being the lowest grade for course credit. Most undergraduate schools require a 2.0, or C average to obtain a degree with a minimum of D or D – to pass a course. For most secondary schools, the minimum overall and course passes are both D or D−‍. Some districts, such as Mount Olive Township School District in New Jersey, have eliminated D as a passing grade for their students due to a high failure rate. Whereas most American graduate schools use four-point grading (A, B, C, and E/F), several—mostly in the west, especially in California—do award D grades but still require a B average for degree qualification. Some American graduate schools use nine- or ten-point grading scales, such as the Rackham School of Graduate Studies at the University of Michigan, where 9.0 = A+, 8.0 = A, 7.0 = A−, and so on. In a handful of states, within the United States, GPA scales can go above 4.0. The percentage needed in any given course to achieve a certain grade and the assignment of GPA point values varies from school to school, and sometimes between instructors within a given school. The most common grading scales for normal courses and honors/Advanced Placement courses are as follows: Some states, such as South Carolina, Indiana, Louisiana, Nebraska, New Jersey, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Illinois and Virginia may use the following grading scale: Whether a school uses E or F to indicate a failing grade typically depends on time and geography. Around the time of World War II, several states][ began to use E, while the majority of the country continued to use the F, which traces to the days of Pass/Fail grading (P and F). In recent years, some schools have begun using an N for failing grades, presumably to represent "No Credit". Another letter used to represent a failing grade is U, representing "unsatisfactory." Chromatic variants ("+" and " – ") are used. In most 100-point grading systems, the letter grade without variants is centered around a value ending in five. The "plus" variant is then assigned the values near the nine digit and the "minus" variant is assigned the values near zero. Any decimal values are usually rounded. Thus, a score of 80 to 82 is a B−, a score 83 to 87 is a B and a score of 87 to 89 is a B+. The four-point GPA scale, the letter grade without variants is assigned to the integer. The "plus" and "minus" variants are then assigned to .3 above the integer and .3 below the integer, respectively. Thus, a B is equal to 3.0, a B+ is equal to 3.3, and a B – is equal to 2.7. The A range is often treated as a special case. In most American schools, a 4.00 is regarded as perfect and the highest GPA one can achieve. Thus, an A, being the prime grade, achieves the mark of a 4.00; for the A+ mark, most schools still assign a value of 4.00, equivalent to the A mark, to prevent deviation from the standard 4.00 GPA system. However, the A+ mark, then, becomes a mark of distinction that has no impact on the student's GPA. A few schools, however, do assign grade values of 4.33 or 4.30; but the scale is still called "4.0", because grading scales (or "quality indices") take their numerical names from the highest whole number. In many American high schools, students may also score above 4.0 if taking advanced, honors, Advanced Placement, or International Baccalaureate classes (for example, a "regular" A would be worth 4 points, but an A earned in an advanced class might be worth 4.5 or 5 points towards the GPA.). There has been dispute][ over how colleges should look at grades from previous schools and high schools because one grade in one part of the country might not be the equivalent of a grade in another part of the country. In other words, an "A" might be 90–100 somewhere, and a 94–100 somewhere else. In middle and high schools that do not use a system based on academic credit, the grade point average is computed by taking the mean of all grades. In colleges and universities that use discrete evaluation, the grade point average is calculated by multiplying the quantitative values by the credit value of the correlative course, and then dividing the total by the sum of all credits. For example: In a standards-based grading system, a performance standard is set by a committee based on ranking anchor papers and grading rubrics, which demonstrate performance which is below, meeting, or exceeding the "standard."][ This standard is intended to be a high, world-class level of performance, which must be met by every student regardless of ability or class, although they are actually set by a committee with no reference to any other national standard][. Levels are generally assigned numbers between zero and four. Writing papers may be graded separately on content (discussion) and conventions (spelling and grammar). Since grading is not based on a curve distribution, it is entirely possible to achieve a grading distribution in which all students pass and meet the standard. While such grading is generally used only for assessments, they have been proposed for alignment with classroom grading. However, in practice, grading can be much more severe than traditional letter grades. Even after ten years, some states, such as Washington, continue to evaluate over half of their students as "below standard" on the state mathematics assessment. Here is another example of a commonly used grading scale, currently in place at Wayzata High School in Plymouth, Minnesota. The Grade Point Average is not the traditional 4-point scale, but uses the 12-point scale for unweighted classes and the 15-point scale for weighted classes: The 12 point GPA scale works as follows. Students receive 12 points for an A or A+, 11 points for an A-, 10 points for a B+, etc. for each grading period. Once a grading period is complete, the student's total grade points are divided by the total number of credits and a GPA is generated. For Example, here is one term of grades and a grade point average from a student whose school uses the 86-minute block schedule (such as Wayzata High School): This is an approximate Naplan Guide : Majority of the Australian tertiary institutions use the following grading structure: Some other Australian universities have a marking system based on the Honours system used at Oxford and Cambridge: In Schools reports they use these system: A-90-100&: excellent B-75-90%: good C-40-75%: Satisfactoriness D-25-40%: Limited E-10-25%- Very Low F- 10-%: Failed Many courses also have Non-Graded Pass (NGP) and Non-Graded Fail (NGF), in which it is considered more appropriate to have qualitative than quantitative assessment. However, in some universities, an F1 category may be given a 'Pass Conceded' if the student's Weighted Average is greater than a nominated threshold. (More often than not, this is around the 53–55 range.) Grade point averages are not generally used in Australia below a tertiary level, but are important for selection into graduate entry courses such as Medicine and Law. They are calculated according to more complicated formula than some other nations, and may be customised for the particular course application when used as entry criteria into graduate entry degrees: Grade Point Average (GPA) = Sum of (grade points × course unit values) / total number of credit points attempted, in which grade points are as follows: At some universities, such as Macquarie University, University of Technology, Sydney, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) and Monash University, Melbourne, a GPA calculation out of 4 is calculated, whereby 4.0 = a High Distinction; 3.0 is a Distinction, 2.0 is a Credit, and 1.0 is a pass. In certain faculties, such as law, it is therefore possible to graduate with "honours" with a GPA of less than 2.5. Whenever a course result is a Non-Graded Pass, the result will normally be disregarded in GPA calculation. The term course unit values is used to distinguish between courses which have different weightings e.g. between a full year course and a single semester course. The High School Certificate system varies from state to state. But in most states the ATAR (Australian Tertiary Admissions Rank) system determines tertiary positions. Government Supported Positions are given to students that achieve above a certain ATAR threshold. (An example of this is an ATAR of 85 for Civil Engineering at the University of New South Wales.) The value of the ATAR corresponds with their year 7 cohort, including students that did not complete year 12. An ATAR of 80.00, for example, indicates that students with that ATAR have performed in the HSC better than 80 percent of their year 7 cohort, had all these year 7 students completed year 12 and been eligible for an ATAR. By contrast, in Queensland, graduating Year 12 students are awarded an OP of between 1 and 25, 1 being the most coveted; students are allocated their OP by means of a summation of marks from all their year 12 (and in some cases, year 11) courses, and also from the QCS (Queensland Core Skills) test, this being a series of four tests held at the end of secondary education. Most New Zealand secondary school use the National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) marking schedule, even in pre-NCEA years for commonality. There are four grades, from lowest to highest, Not Achieved (N), Achieved (A), Merit (M), and Excellence (E). The minority of schools using other secondary school qualifications (usually CIE or IB) have different grades. Grading at tertiary institutions varies from institution to institution and even course to course. Grade point average is rarely used in New Zealand, however the NCEA system does have an equivalent measure in which students can gain certificates and courses endorsed with Merit or Excellence. In Argentina the GPA is calculated trimonthly, per semester or per year. Typically, grades vary between 1 and 10. The minimum grade for passing generally requires 60% which represents a grade 6, at Secondary School (some schools may require 70%). Depending on the University, the admittance may require: In some universities, people over 25 years old can be admitted even if they couldn't complete high school, but they must pass an entry exam. For University the grades also vary between 1 and 10, although a 4 represents 60%, which is the grade required for approval. In Brazil the GPA – known as Coeficiente de Rendimento, or Índice de Rendimento Acadêmico – is calculated per semester or per year or both. The High School GPA is almost never used for college entrance evaluation in public universities (state funded and free of charge). To enter state colleges, Brazilian students must attend to entrance exams called vestibulares. The most famous ones are FUVEST, the entrance exam for University of São Paulo, and ENEM, a national exam that ranks high school students to be accepted by federal funded colleges. The private colleges system also apply entrance exams, but some might use the GPA as an evaluation method. During college, the GPA is calculated as a weighted average of grade and course hours and have a bigger importance than in the high school as it determines priority in receiving scholarships, for example. The majority of schools adopt a 0,0 (worst) to 10,0 (best) scale for grading, but some of the Brazilian schools adopt the following grading system: A grade below 50% is surely a fail, although some schools have passing criteria of 60% or 70%. Some schools adopt a system without the E mark, like this: In this system a grade below 70 or 65% is a fail, but the people having C and D grades can attend ERP - Estudos de Recuperação Paralela, when the grade is not the final grade, and ERF - Estudos de Recuperação Final - when the grade is the final grade, so they can have a better grade: A or B. In ERP, if person continues having C or D, he/ she will attend ERF. If the person has C or D in ERF, he/ she will "repeat the year" - that's how people say in Brazil. Grades are assigned with a numeric scale from 1.0 to 7.0, including at least one decimal, with 4.0 as the lowest passing grade (equivalent to 60%). Everything under a 4.0 is considered a "rojo" or "red mark," which equates to failing. For the PSU, Prueba de Selección Universitaria (UST, University Selection Test), the scale goes from 150 to 850 points. Depending on the university and the major, the student will need a minimum score to get accepted. The final score will depend on the points obtained in each test: Mathematics and Linguistics (both mandatory); Natural Sciences and History (only one of them mandatory) and the NEM score, Notas de Enseñanza Media (High School Grades) converted into the PSU Scale. Although there are several grading systems in the country, the most widely used is a numeric scale from 0 to 5. 0 is the lowest and 5 the highest. When grading two decimals are commonly used. In order to pass a course, the student must obtain a grade equal or higher than 3.0, which corresponds to a 60% of the highest grade. Since 2010 Colombian schools can choose how to grade their students. In some universities and schools, the student must obtain a grade equal or higher than 3.5, which corresponds to a 70% of the highest grade. Most final grades are the result of a simple average; but some private institutions can give different percentages to specific grades or grading periods. In Ecuador, the rating system is 10 out of 10, including two decimal places in both primary, secondary and university, the highest score is 10 and the lowest is 1, to meet the minimum grade to pass this year is 7, depending on how schools are organized since 2012 enjoy complete autonomy in Ecuador, so that some establishments maintain supplementary examination for those with less than 7, and other approved intensive recovery, but if the grade obtained is low of 5 are automatically disqualified and disciplinary same behavior is described as follows: A (excellent), B (outstanding), C (very good), D (Good), E (Regular) and F (failure), and students they got 10 out of 10 in 90% of subjects in the first school year quimestre is promoted to a senior year, but making an entrance examination. Notes and academic qualifications and groups them reasoning thus: The grades vary from 1 to 5, where 5 is the maximum grade achievable and 1 the lowest. The minimum for pass is 2. Grades range from 0 to 20, in an almost unique grading table. The passing grade is 11 in almost all schools and universities, while certain ones require 13. In some preschool facilities, grades usually range from F to A+, following the American system, and in a few colleges, the passing grade is 10. High grades in Uruguay are very hard to achieve. Grades range from 1 to 12. 1 is the lowest and 12 is the highest. Passing an exam or course requires 6 out of 12 in high school or at a private university, and 3 out of 12 at a public university. Both (6 in high school and 3 at a public university) correspond to 50% on an exam or in a course. Grades of 10, 11, and 12 are considered excellent. Some private universities grade their students on a percentage basis, 70% being the passing grade. At the Universidad Católica del Uruguay, grades range from 1 to 6, with 3 as the lowest passing. Grades in Venezuela may vary according to the education level, but normally the grading system is numerical, and ranges from 00 to 20, 00 being the lowest and 20 being the highest, and 10 being the pass mark, equivalent to a "D" in the United States. This is not required, however, and several schools in Venezuela deviate from this grading system, and follow a system similar, if not identical to, the United States, in which letters are used as grades. Shown here is the Venezuelan grading system in probable comparison with the United States grading system: College and post-college students often wonder how much weight their GPA carries in future employment. The employer, company and industry plays the largest factor in answering this question. According to Johnny C. Taylor, Jr., senior vice president of human resources for IAC/InterActive Corp, a company with over 33,000 employees, an applicant’s GPA is the single best indicator of future success in job employment. According to the National Association of Colleges and Employers, since 2001 there has been an increase in employers looking at, and making hiring decisions based on, a candidate's GPA. In addition, Job Outlook 2005 survey reported that 70 percent of employers looked at an applicants GPA, increasing to 75 percent in 2010. Those looking at and weighing in college GPA reported that their cut off was a GPA of 3.0 or lower. GPA is not the only factor that determines future employment. Many employers look for other pertinent characters such as leadership, teamwork, flexibility and attitude. They may also look at the reputation of the college attended and other work related experiences such as internships. In a 2010 student survey for recruiters, 45 percent of the students who had completed an internship had already received a job offer. Many of these jobs were within the company that they interned for. Although GPA seems to be important in the hiring process, other variables may contribute to the likelihood of getting hired. If a student’s GPA is below a 3.0 or what the employer is looking for, it is suggested to calculate your GPA for only the classes within your major for your resume. There is also criticism about using grades as an indicator in employment. Armstrong (2012) claimed that the relationship between grades and job performance is low and it's becoming lower in recent studies.

A police officer (also known as a policeman, police agent, patrolman, cop, policewoman, and constable in some forces, particularly in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth nations) is a warranted employee of a police force. In the United States, "officer" is the formal name of the lowest police rank. In many other countries, "officer" is a generic term not specifying a particular rank, and the lowest rank is often "constable". In many other countries there is no such title as "police officer", as the use of the rank "officer" is legally reserved for military personnel only and thus not applicable. Police officers are generally charged with the apprehension of criminals and the prevention and detection of crime, and the maintenance of public order. Police officers may be sworn to an oath, and have the power to arrest people and detain them for a limited time, along with other duties and powers.

Some police officers may also be trained in special duties, such as counter-terrorism, surveillance, child protection, VIP protection, and investigation techniques into major crime, including fraud, rape, murder and drug trafficking.

Patty Cantu

Ninth grade (called Grade 9 in some regions) is the ninth post-kindergarten year of school education in some school systems. The students are 14 to 15 years of age, depending on when their birthday is. Depending on the school district, ninth grade is usually the first year of high school, or the last year of middle school. In America, it is often called Freshman year. In Australia it is the third year of secondary school (high school) for students, though because Australian schools commence school after kindergarten with a "preparatory year" and then start grade one the following year, 'ninth grade' is actually the students' tenth year at school. Thus Australian students are at primary and high school for thirteen years in total. Then in New Zealand and parts of Canada, ninth grade is generally the second year of high school for students. In England ninth grade is known as year ten and is the fourth year of secondary school where children are 14 to 15 years of age. In Scotland, the equivalent is Secondary year 3 (S3).

In Australian state, secondary school (sometimes referred to as high school) starts in Grade 8 for Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland, grade 7 for Victoria and New South Wales.

Ruben Montoya Cantu (December 5, 1966 – August 24, 1993) was a Texan who was executed for murder. During the years following the conviction, the surviving victim, the co-defendant, the District Attorney, and the jury forewoman have all made public statements that cast doubt on Cantu's guilty verdict and death sentence.

Ruben Cantu grew up with his mother and father, until the age of 14, when the couple split up, with Ruben's mother moving 20 miles (30 km) away, and Ruben and his father continuing to live in a trailer in a crime-ridden south San Antonio barrio. The neighborhood was home to a loose band of tough kids called the Grey Eagles, of which Cantu became a leader, despite being rather small and in special-ed classes at school. By age 15, he was stealing cars for an organized auto theft ring, often spending days at a time driving stolen cars to Mexico for cash. At a time when the San Antonio Police Department was embroiled in scandal, with vigilantes and drug-dealing officers well known to the community, Cantu was stealing cars and dodging the police. His older brothers had been arrested on drug and theft charges, but despite several run-ins with the police, Ruben was never convicted of anything before the November 1984 crime that led to his execution.


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