Area 51, also officially known as Groom Lake or Homey Airport (ICAO: KXTA) is a remote detachment of Edwards Air Force Base. According to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the correct names for the Area 51 facility are the Nevada Test and Training Range and Groom Lake, though the name Area 51 has been used in official CIA documentation. Other names used for the facility include Dreamland, Paradise Ranch, Home Base, Watertown Strip, and most recently Homey Airport. The area around the field is referred to as (R-4808N).
It is located in the southern portion of Nevada in the western United States, 83 miles (133 km) north-northwest of Las Vegas. Situated at its center, on the southern shore of Groom Lake, is a large military airfield. The base's current primary purpose is officially undetermined; however, based on historical evidence, it most likely supports development and testing of experimental aircraft and weapons systems. The intense secrecy surrounding the base has made it the frequent subject of conspiracy theories and a central component to unidentified flying object (UFO) folklore. Although the base has never been declared a secret base, all research and occurrings in Area 51 are Top Secret/Sensitive Compartmented Information (TS/SCI). In July 2013, following a FOIA request filed in 2005, the Central Intelligence Agency publicly acknowledged the existence of the base for the first time by declassifying documents detailing the history and purpose of Area 51.
Founded by Adam Weishaupt in Bavaria in 1776, the Illuminati has been referred to in popular culture, in books and comics, television and movies, and games. A number of novelists, playwrights, and composers are alleged to have been Illuminati members and to have reflected this in their work. Also, early conspiracy theories surrounding the Illuminati inspired a number of creative works, and continue to do so.
The Royal Kennebecasis Adventurers Society (RKAS //), is a name that refers to several groups, both real and fictitious. Historically, it refers specifically to the Kanabicases Adventurers Society, a guild of smugglers and privateers founded in Saint John, New Brunswick between the late 18th and early 19th century.]citation needed[ However, in modern times it refers to a purported conspiratorial organization which acts as a shadowy power behind the throne,]dubious [ allegedly controlling New Brunswick affairs through present day governments and corporations,]dubious [ usually as a modern incarnation or continuation of the Kanabicases Adventurers Society. It is unknown at what time, or for what purpose the term 'Royal' was added as a prefix to the society name, however it has been speculated that it was added as a satirical insult to the idea of Crown control within the colony, or to further the conspiratorial notion that the group exerts true control over political affairs as a shadow power.
Local populist history states that the Kanabicases Adventurers Society was formed around the time of the arrival of Loyalist settlers in Saint John in 1783 and achieved its first prominence during the 1790s with great profits made from raiding enemy shipping along the coasts of New England and the Maritime provinces.]citation needed[ The groups greatest successes came during the period of the War of 1812, when numerous Saint John privateers captured prizes from American merchant vessels.]citation needed[ However, privateering by New Brunswick vessels began prior to the British declaration of war, and required surreptitious gathering of men and letters of marque. The RKAS gained power during this time acting as a sort of recruiter and organizer of expeditions.]citation needed[ Calls for men were often concealed in the New Brunswick Gazette as ventures against the French, and would use pseudonyms for vessel names, as demonstrated in this recruitment advertisement for the privateer ship Ruckus (notably identical to the pronunciation of the RKAS acronym) that appeared in the New Brunswick Gazette on 14 July 1812:
A secret society is a club or organization whose activities and inner functioning are concealed from non-members. The society may or may not attempt to conceal its existence. The term usually excludes covert groups, such as intelligence agencies, or guerrilla insurgencies, which hide their activities and memberships but maintain a public presence. The exact qualifications for labeling a group as a secret society are disputed, but definitions generally rely on the degree to which the organization insists on secrecy, and might involve the retention and transmission of secret knowledge, denial of membership or knowledge of the group, the creation of personal bonds between members of the organization, and the use of secret rites or rituals which solidify members of the group.
Anthropologically and historically, secret societies are deeply interlinked with the concept of the Mannerbund, the all-male "warrior-band" or "warrior-society" of pre-modern cultures (see H. Schurtz, Alterklassen und Mannerbunde, Berlin, 1902; A. Van Gennep, The Rites of Passage, Chicago, 1960).
A conspiracy theory is an explanatory proposition that accuses two or more people, a group, or an organization of having caused or covered up, through deliberate collusion, an event or phenomenon of great social, political, or economic impact. In recent decades the term has acquired a derogatory meaning, and a careful distinction must be made between the derisive use of the term and reference to actual, proven conspiracies. Numerous explanations have been proposed as to why people believe in conspiracy theories. Further, different types of conspiracy theories have been proposed. Conspiracism, a world view marked by conspiracy theories, has been elaborated, as well as its effect on society. In addition, scholars have identified some psychological origins of conspiracy theories. Finally, the socio-political origins of conspiracy theories have been analyzed, along with their deliberate use by despotic political regimes.