Tortoiseshell describes a coat coloring found almost exclusively in female cats. Also called Torties for short, they combine two colors other than white, either closely mixed or in large patches. The colors are often described as red and black, but "red" can instead be orange, yellow, or cream and "black" can instead be chocolate, grey, tabby, or blue. A tortoiseshell cat with the tabby pattern as one of its colors, is a Torbie.
"Tortoiseshell" is typically reserved for cats with relatively small or no white markings. Those that are largely white with tortoiseshell patches are described as tricolor, tortoiseshell-and-white (in the United Kingdom), or calico (in Canada and the United States). Tortoiseshell markings appear in many different breeds as well as in non-purebred domestic cats. This pattern is especially preferred in the Japanese Bobtail breed.
Klinefelter syndrome or Klinefelter's syndrome, is the set of symptoms resulting from additional X genetic material in males. Also known as 47,XXY or XXY, is a genetic disorder in which there is at least one extra X chromosome to a standard human male karyotype, for a total of 47 chromosomes rather than the 46 found in genetically normal humans. While females have an XX chromosomal makeup, and males an XY, individuals with Klinefelter syndrome have at least two X chromosomes and at least one Y chromosome. Because of the extra chromosome, individuals with the condition are usually referred to as "XXY males", or "47,XXY males".
This chromosome constitution (karyotype) exists in roughly between 1:500 to 1:1000 live male births but many of these people may not show symptoms. If the physical traits associated with the syndrome become apparent, they normally appear after the onset of puberty.
The Y chromosome is one of two sex-determining chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans (the other is the X chromosome). In mammals, the Y chromosome contains the gene SRY, which triggers testicle development if present. The human Y chromosome is composed of about 50 million base pairs. DNA in the Y chromosome is passed from father to son, and Y-DNA analysis may thus be used in genealogical research. With a 30% difference between humans and chimpanzees, the Y chromosome is one of the fastest evolving parts of the human genome.
The genetics of cat coat coloration, pattern, length, and texture is a complex subject, and many different genes are involved.
Calico cats are domestic cats with a spotted or parti-colored coat that is predominantly white, with patches of two other colors (often the two other colors are orange tabby and black). Outside of North America the pattern is more usually called tortoiseshell-and-white. In the province of Quebec, they are sometimes called chatte d'Espagne (French for '(female) cat of Spain'). Other names include tricolor cat, mi-ke (Japanese for 'triple fur') and lapjeskat (Dutch for 'patches cat'); calicoes with diluted coloration have been called calimanco or clouded tiger. Occasionally, the tri-color calico coloration is combined with a tabby patterning. This calico patched tabby is called a caliby.
"Calico" refers only to a color pattern on the fur, not to a breed. It is absent from lists of breeds. Among the breeds whose standards allow calico coloration are the Manx, American Shorthair, British Shorthair, Persian, Japanese Bobtail, Exotic Shorthair and Turkish Van.
In journalism, a human interest story is a feature story that discusses a person or people in an emotional way. It presents people and their problems, concerns, or achievements in a way that brings about interest, sympathy or motivation in the reader or viewer.
Human interest stories may be "the story behind the story" about an event, organization, or otherwise faceless historical happening, such as about the life of an individual soldier during wartime, an interview with a survivor of a natural disaster, a random act of kindness or profile of someone known for a career achievement.