A mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) (or mobile other licensed operator (MOLO) in the United Kingdom) is a wireless communications services provider that does not own the wireless network infrastructure over which the MVNO provides services to its customers. An MVNO enters into a business agreement with a mobile network operator to obtain bulk access to network services at wholesale rates, then sets retail prices independently. An MVNO may use its own customer service and billing support systems, marketing and sales personnel or it may employ the services of a Mobile Virtual Network Enabler (MVNE).
Countries such as the United Kingdom, Scandinavian countries, and Spain are leading this business model in Europe.
Cellco Partnership, doing business as Verizon Wireless, is the largest mobile network operator in the United States, providing wireless services to 119.450 million subscribers as of Q3 2013. Headquartered in Basking Ridge, New Jersey, the company was formed as a joint venture of American telecommunications firm Bell Atlantic (renamed Verizon Communications) and global British telecommunications company Vodafone. Verizon Communications holds 55 percent ownership and Vodafone holds the remaining 45 percent of the joint venture. On September 2, 2013, Verizon Communications announced that it had agreed to buy Vodafone's stake for $130 billion in a deal expected to close by the first quarter of 2014. With this deal the company becomes a division of Verizon Communications.
Verizon Communications (NYSE: VZ, NASDAQ: VZ), branded as Verizon (pronounced // və-RY-zən), is an American broadband and telecommunications company and a corporate component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. It started in 1983 as Bell Atlantic (based in Philadelphia) with a footprint covering New Jersey to Virginia and emerged as part of the 1984 breakup of AT&T into seven "Baby Bells." In 1997, Bell Atlantic merged with another Regional Bell Operating Company, NYNEX, based in New York City with a footprint spanning from New York to Maine. The combined company kept the Bell Atlantic name. In 2000, Bell Atlantic merged with former independent phone company GTE, and adopted the name "Verizon", a portmanteau of veritas (Latin for "truth") and horizon. The company's headquarters, while always having been located in New York City, were originally at 1095 Avenue of the Americas until the Bell Atlantic-GTE merger, when its headquarters were moved Verizon Building at 140 West Street in Lower Manhattan before returning to the 1095 space in 2013.
Electronics engineering, or electronic engineering, is an engineering discipline where non-linear and active electrical components such as electron tubes, and semiconductor devices, especially transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, are utilized to design electronic circuits, devices and systems, typically also including passive electrical components and based on printed circuit boards. The term denotes a broad engineering field that covers important subfields such as analog electronics, digital electronics, consumer electronics, embedded systems and power electronics. Electronics engineering deals with implementation of applications, principles and algorithms developed within many related fields, for example solid-state physics, radio engineering, telecommunications, control systems, signal processing, systems engineering, computer engineering, instrumentation engineering, electric power control, robotics, and many others.]verification needed[
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is one of the most important and influential organizations for electronics engineers.
A prepaid mobile phone (also commonly referred to as pay-as-you-go, pay-as-you-talk, pay and go, prepaid wireless, or prepay) is a mobile phone for which credit is purchased in advance of service use. The purchased credit is used to pay for mobile phone services at the point the service is accessed or consumed. If there is no available credit then access to the requested service is denied by the mobile phone network. Users are able to top up their credit at any time using a variety of payment mechanisms.
The alternative billing method (and what is commonly referred to as a mobile phone contract) is the post-paid mobile phone, where a user enters into a long-term (generally lasting 12, 18 or 24 months) or short term (also commonly referred to as a rolling contract or a 30-day contract), billing arrangement with a mobile network operator or carriage service provider (CSP).
The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to serve several billion users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW), the infrastructure to support email, and peer-to-peer networks.
Most traditional communications media including telephone, music, film, and television are being reshaped or redefined by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and Internet Protocol television (IPTV). Newspaper, book and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging and web feeds. The Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking. Online shopping has boomed both for major retail outlets and small artisans and traders. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries.
A mobile phone (also known as a cellular phone, cell phone, and a hand phone) is a device that can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link while moving around a wide geographic area. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile phone operator, allowing access to the public telephone network. By contrast, a cordless telephone is used only within the short range of a single, private base station.
In addition to telephony, modern mobile phones also support a wide variety of other services such as text messaging, MMS, email, Internet access, short-range wireless communications (infrared, Bluetooth), business applications, gaming and photography. Mobile phones that offer these and more general computing capabilities are referred to as smartphones.